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Immunity after COVID-19 illness may last at least 1 year



Long-term data from northern Italy – an area that was badly hit in the early days of the pandemic – suggests that re-infection after recovering from COVID-19 infection is very rare and immunity in ex-patients can be long-lasting .

“Natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 appears to have a protective effect similar to that reported in recent vaccine studies for at least a year,” concluded a team led by Dr. Nicola Mumoli from Fornaroli Hospital in Magenta. Italy.

The findings, based on the health records of more than 15,000 people, were published in JAMA Internal Medicine on May 28.

Despite the encouraging results, there are still important reasons for people who have gone through COVID-19 to get vaccinated, said an expert who wrote an editorial accompanying the study.

“First, we don’t know how long natural immunity lasts,” wrote Dr. Mitchell Katz of NYC Health and Hospitals after recovering from COVID. It is also unclear how much disease-related immunity protects against new variants of SARS-CoV-2, he added.

After all, there is a broader social benefit to having everyone vaccinated, Katz said.

“Achieving herd immunity through natural infection is a long and painful process, and historically the only human disease that has been eradicated, smallpox, has been eradicated by vaccination rather than natural infection,” he said.

In the Italian study, reinfection was defined as the occurrence of a new infection at least 90 days after “complete resolution of the first infection” to ensure there is no confusion about traces of the first infection that remained in tests.

Mumoli’s group tracked the rate of new infections in over 15,000 residents of the northern Italian region of Lombardy using PCR-COVID swab tests performed in early 2020 through late February 2021.

Almost 13,000 had a negative COVID-19 test on their initial tests, while 1,579 had a positive test.

Within a year after that, 3.9% of people who had never tested positive for COVID-19 in previous tests acquired COVID infection, Mumoli’s group reported.

In contrast, only 0.31% – five people – of previously infected people took on a second attack of the disease. Four of the five patients either worked in hospitals or visited hospitals, the researchers said, suggesting that they were particularly exposed to the virus. Only 1 in 5 re-infected patients were sick enough to be hospitalized.

In addition, reinfection usually only occurred after the time had elapsed: the average time from initial infection to reinfection was 230 days, Mumoli and his colleagues found.

However, the researchers stressed that none of this means that the previously infected person should skip the COVID-19 vaccination. Following Katz’s approach, they noted that their study “ended before SARS-CoV-2 variants began to spread, and it is not known how good the natural immunity to the wild type is [original] Virus protects against variants. ”

Doctors warn that two different bouts of COVID-19 infection could be possible

More information:
Learn about COVID-19 and vaccinations at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Quote: Immunity from COVID-19 disease can last at least 1 year (2021, May 31). It was accessed on May 31, 2021 from

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Mayo unveils mobile health clinic | News, Sports, Jobs



Photo courtesy Amanda Dyslin (bold above 🙂 Above: Dr. James Hebl (left), regional vice president, and Dr. Gokhan Anil, regional chairman of clinical practice, spoke to community members at the Mayo Clinic Health System in Fairmont Monday morning about the mobile health clinic that will serve communities in southeast and southwest Minnesota, including Sherburn. Photo courtesy Amanda Dyslin Above: Dr. James Hebl (left), regional vice president, and Dr. Gokhan Anil, regional chair of clinical practice, spoke to community members Monday morning at the Mayo Clinic Health System in Fairmont about the mobile health clinic that will serve the communities in southeast and southwest Minnesota, including Sherburn.

FAIRMONT – According to Amanda Dyslin of Mayo Clinic Health System, MCHS is launching a new mobile health clinic that will expand services by increasing reach and providing direct access to health care for patients in rural communities in southern Minnesota.

Dr. James Hebl Regional Vice President and Dr. Gokhan Anil, regional chairman of clinical practice, spoke to community members Monday at MCHS in Fairmont about the mobile health clinic that will serve communities in southeast and southwest Minnesota, including Sherburn. In addition, guided tours through the mobile health station were offered.

“It was great to finally be able to show the device to the public in southwest Minnesota and just get a feel for what it will be like when it’s up and running.” said Dyslin. “The only town identified as a rest stop so far is Sherburn, but that will change in the future.”

The mobile health clinic will be housed in a large utility vehicle and will include two examination rooms, an on-site laboratory and pharmacy services. Patient visits will begin later this summer and specific locations and dates will be shared with patients.

“The mobile health clinic is part of Mayo Clinic’s commitment to innovation and creative solutions that serve local communities.” said Dr. Anil. “The mobile health clinic provides enhanced quality health services to people in communities that do not have inpatient clinic facilities.”

Patients will be able to receive medical checkups and treat chronic diseases.

The mobile health clinic also has the technology and equipment to virtually connect patients through video appointments with experts at the Mayo Clinic.

“The mobile health clinic is an extension of the virtual care options of the Mayo Clinic Health System.” said Dr. Anil. “In addition to the mobile health clinic, patients can access their care team through Patient Online Services, Mayo Clinic Health System’s patient portal. Find real-time primary care services through Express Care Online; and get expert medical advice from nurses by calling the Nurse Care Line. “

The services include:

– Acute illness / infection.

– Vaccinations, including COVID-19 vaccinations.

– Preventive services and medical check-ups.

– Medication refills and controls.

– Chronic disease controls.

– Warfarin management.

– Pacemaker checks (virtual).

– Special consultations and follow-ups (virtual).

– Prenatal visits (virtual).

– Wellness visits.

– pediatrics.

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Individuals with internalizing disorders have increased mortality risk



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Individuals with internalizing mental disorders had a significantly higher mortality rate than those without these disorders.

This discovery underscores the utility of using a transdiagnostic internalizing factor in predicting mortality risk, according to Hyunsik Kim, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Sogang University in South Korea and colleagues.

The researchers found that the significantly predicted mortality risk was internalized in participants who reported excellent health themselves, which was inconsistent in those who reported poorer physical health. The data was provided by Kim H, et al. World Psychiatry. 2021; doi: 10.1002 / wps.20859.

“The significant interaction between internalization and physical health suggests that the former dimension has more of an impact on early death in currently physically healthy individuals,” wrote Kim and colleagues.

Researchers examined the usefulness of a transdiagnostic internalizing factor versus disorder-specific variance, the factor’s ability to predict mortality risk, and the impact of self-reported physical health on internalization and early mortality. They analyzed the data from 6,329 participants recruited through the Midlife in the United States study. Participants completed a telephone interview and self-administered questionnaire, and the researchers followed the cohort through October 31, 2015, or until death. They measured symptom scores for major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder symptoms and rated neuroticism.

The mean age of the participants was 46.77 years; 88.04% of the participants identified as white and 52.64% were women. During the study period, 1,234 participants died with an average survival time of 11.5 years. However, the mean survival time for the entire study cohort was 19.23 years. Kim and colleagues found that MDD, GAD, and neuroticism have significant predictions of moral risk using hierarchical regression models. Using the Cox regression analysis, the internalizing factor predicted the mortality risk after adjustments to be significant and positive (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05-1.16, P <0.01). However, when their combined variance in internalization was taken into account, the degree to which MDD, GAD, and neuroticism predicted mortality risk were attenuated by 67.2%, 86.9% and 87.1%, respectively, according to the researchers. The internalization of the significantly predicted mortality risk in participants who reported excellent health was inconsistent among those who reported poor physical health. Analysis at the level of the internalization factor showed an increase in the mortality rate of 12.3% for each unit step size of 1 standard deviation. Disorder-specific variances had no significant influence on the prediction of mortality risk. However, internalization accounted for 34.93% of MDD, 24.21% of GAD, 25.81% of panic disorder, and 23.91% of neuroticism variance.

Kim and colleagues speculated that the higher death rate among those who internalize may be explained by improper coping, physical inactivity, or a greater likelihood of experiencing adverse life outcomes.

“These results underscore the clinical utility of using the transdiagnostic internalizing factor to predict an important future outcome, and support the argument that internalizing psychopathology can be a useful task to incorporate into intervention and prevention research and into public health practice explore, ”she wrote.


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Tiny capsules containing cannabinoids could help treat neurological disorders



A team of researchers led by Curtin University has discovered a new way to improve the rate of oral absorption of medical cannabis, which could potentially be used in the future to treat neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injuries.

Photo credit: Curtin University

Published in the journal PLOS ONE and financed by industrial partner Zelira Therapeutics, the researchers were able to produce tiny capsules with cannabinoids that were absorbed faster by the body when taken orally and penetrated the brain more quickly in mouse models with neurological diseases than when it was supplied in liquid form .

Lead researcher, Associate Professor Ryu Takechi of the Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI) and Curtin University’s School of Population Health, said there is growing interest in the use of cannabidiol to treat various neurological disorders, but there are limitations due to it its poor absorption and sensitivity to light and gastric acid when taken orally.

“Cannabidiol occurs in medical cannabis and is a popular natural remedy for people with neurological and metabolic diseases. Due to limitations in absorption, we wanted to develop and test a new method of drug delivery, ”said Professor Takechi.

“Our team was able to significantly improve the absorption and release of cannabidiol in the brain by administering it in a novel microcapsule form in combination with a naturally occurring bile acid.

“With this new capsule shape, we were able to remarkably improve the release of cannabidiol in the brain in animal models by 40 times and we were also able to protect the drug from oxidation and degradation by light, which extends the shelf life of the product.”

Associate Professor Takechi said the results could be helpful to support the clinical use of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of neurological disorders.

“In this study we were able to show for the first time that a bile acid actually increases the absorption and retention of cannabidiol in the brain. This shows that bile acids could be used to improve the intake of cannabidiol when taken orally, particularly in the treatment of neurological disorders, ”said Professor Takechi.

“More research is needed to test whether this type of drug delivery could be successful in human studies, but our results are very promising.”

Dr. Oludare Odumosu, CEO of Zelira, said he was very pleased with the outcome of working with Associate Professor Takechi and his team.

The new encapsulation technology appears to significantly improve the efficiency with which cannabinoid-based drugs can be transported into the brain. This could improve the effectiveness of cannabinoid therapies in treating neurological disorders while reducing costs and increasing safety. “

Dr. Oludare Odumosu, CEO, Zelira

This research was a joint effort by researchers from CHIRI, Curtin Medical School, and the School of Population Health at Curtin University, the University of Newcastle and the University of Otago.

The full paper entitled “Sodium Alginate Microencapsulation Improves Short-Term Oral Bioavailability of Cannabidiol When Administered with Deoxycholic Acid” can be found online here.


Journal reference:

Majimbi, M., et al. (2021) Sodium alginate microencapsulation improves the short-term oral bioavailability of cannabidiol when administered with deoxycholic acid. PLUS ONE.

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