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Black pepper: Nutrition and health benefits

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Black pepper and its alkaloid component, piperine, are linked to many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects and potential cancer-fighting properties.

Pepper has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, especially Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medical system. Individuals used it primarily to treat menstrual and ear, nose and throat disorders.

However, consuming too much black pepper can lead to gastrointestinal side effects, so people need to be careful not to overuse.

Read on to learn more about black pepper, including nutritional information, health benefits, and potential risks.

The table below shows the amount of nutrients in one teaspoon of ground black pepper weighing 2.3 grams (g).

There are currently no nutritional guidelines on how much black pepper a person of any gender or age group should consume.

However, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 2020-2025 suggest that adding herbs and spices can help add flavor to a dish when a person is trying to reduce their dietary intake of added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat.

There are several potential health benefits of black pepper for the body and brain, and many of them come from the black pepper compound piperine.

Rich in antioxidants

Piperine, the plant component of black pepper, has powerful antioxidant properties.

The body creates free radicals, unstable molecules that can damage cells both naturally and in response to environmental stress. Excessive free radical damage can lead to serious health problems, including inflammatory diseases, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Research has shown that a diet high in antioxidants can reduce free radical damage. For example, a review of both test tube and rodent studies found that black pepper and piperine supplements can prevent or slow the progression of free radical damage and related diseases like atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer.

Anti-inflammatory benefits

While there isn’t extensive human research on the anti-inflammatory benefits of black pepper and piperine, several rodent studies suggest that piperine can reduce inflammation.

For example, during a study aimed at finding out whether piperine could suppress heart damage related to doxorubicin, a cancer drug, researchers found that laboratory mice injected with piperine had less inflammation.

Another study in rodents suggests that piperine’s anti-inflammatory properties may help protect kidney tissue damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion. Ischemia reperfusion refers to tissue damage that occurs when part of the body is not receiving enough oxygen.

Researchers have also found that certain piperine supplements can help reduce the chronic inflammation that people with metabolic syndrome experience, but more human research is needed.

Antibacterial properties

A handful of reviews and studies indicate piperine’s antibacterial potential.

For example, after a small review of studies on black pepper’s antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, the researchers concluded that the spice could be an effective ingredient for future therapies against both infectious diseases and foodborne pathogens.

Another large-scale review examined laboratory and human studies that included piperine’s many pharmacological properties, including antibacterial properties.

Similarly, a test-tube study found that piperine and piperlongumin – a component of the long pepper plant – can help fight multi-resistant pathogens. The study’s authors concluded that both compounds could be useful as bioactive compounds for new antibacterial drugs. However, the authors of both reviews suggested that more research is needed.

Anti-cancer properties

Although there have been no human studies to date, several laboratory studies suggest that the piperine in black pepper may have cancer-fighting properties.

For example, a comprehensive review of spices and cancer treatments finds that studies found that piperine suppressed cancer cell replication in breast, prostate, and colon cancers.

The substance showed promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma, a type of bone cancer. However, more scientists need to do more studies to fully examine this effect.

Increase in “good cholesterol”

The researchers conducted a study on piglets randomly given a diet supplemented with or without black pepper and found changes during their growing and fattening periods.

They found that the piglets who ate a black pepper-supplemented diet had significant increases in high-density lipoprotein – what people call “good cholesterol” – compared to other piglets.

The researchers believe these results may warrant further study to investigate the potential beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in humans.

Support blood sugar control

A small human study from 2013 of the effects of a dietary supplement containing several bioactive food ingredients – including piperine – on insulin resistance found an improvement in insulin sensitivity. This enabled the hormone insulin to better regulate the uptake of glucose.

However, since the supplement contained multiple food ingredients, it is not clear whether piperine alone would have achieved the same results.

Nutrient uptake and gut health

Research from 2013 suggests that black pepper may help increase nutrient absorption, exhibit prebiotic-like behavior, regulate gut microbiota, and improve gastrointestinal health.

Increase in brain function

Several animal studies have shown that piperine can improve brain function, especially with symptoms associated with degenerative diseases of the brain such as Alzheimer’s disease.

For example, researchers have found that piperine helped improve memory in rats with Alzheimer’s disease and reduce the formation of amyloid plaques. These are harmful protein fragments that first develop in the areas of the brain associated with memory and cognitive function.

A human study found an association between Alzheimer’s and piperine levels, but the researchers concluded they couldn’t find a reason for the association and said more research is needed.

There isn’t much scientific evidence that black pepper causes serious health risks and side effects.

While consuming too much black pepper can cause indigestion, most herbs and spices do. And consuming large amounts of black pepper can cause a burning sensation in your mouth and throat.

However, some research suggests that black pepper, or more precisely piperine, may have side effects in certain situations.

For example, studies in rodents and humans have shown that piperine can increase the absorption of certain drugs, such as antihistamines. This can be helpful for poorly absorbed drugs, but it can lead to excessive absorption of other drugs.

Therefore, it is important to consult a doctor about possible drug interactions before increasing your black pepper intake or taking piperine supplements.

Healthy Eating

Giada De Laurentiis Reveals Some Tips for Eating Healthy When Dining Out

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Culinary queen Giada De Laurentiis recently shared her journey to healthy eating in her latest book. With recipes, advice and a three-day mini-clean, the Food Network star’s nutritional guide covers many edible floors. De Laurentiis fans will want to read their restaurant eating tips, which will come in handy now that the summer holidays have officially started.

Giada De Laurentiis | Ethan Miller / Getty Images for Vegas Uncork’d by Bon Appetit

Giada De Laurentiis says she should double the vegetables

For those embarking on the path of wellbeing, De Laurentiis insists that you can stick to a healthy diet even if you dine on the go or dine frequently in restaurants. The everyday Italian regards certain ethnic cuisines as a menu with high nutritional value.

“Start by choosing a restaurant that you know has some sensible options for you,” wrote De Laurentiis in her book, Eat Better, Feel Better: My Recipes for Wellness and Healing, Inside and Out. “Italian, Greek, and Middle Eastern restaurants all tend to have lots of vegetable dishes and make their proteins easy with no heavy sauces.”

Speaking of vegetables, De Laurentiis suggests filling your plate with extra vegetables or other vitamin-rich products instead of stacking the potatoes.

“Make your own starter by ordering two or three side vegetables,” she remarked. “Ask if you can replace fried or starchy side dishes with a salad (extra virgin olive oil and lemon as a side dish).”

RELATED: Why Giada De Laurentiis Says “Use Caution” When It Comes To Caffeine and Alcohol

“Giada at Home” star suggests taking leftovers home or halfsies with a starter

De Laurentiis takes a portion-controlled approach and sees the halving of a main meal to either share with your dining partner or to take home leftovers as solutions for a light diet.

“If you have two courses, order an app for both of them or share an appetizer with a friend,” she recommends. “Ask for a box and take half of your starter home with you for lunch the next day. Most restaurant portions are more than enough for two meals, especially if you serve your leftovers over a salad. “

When it comes to alcohol and dessert, De Laurentiis goes the way less is more and reduces both to a minimum.

“Don’t overdo it with the alcohol,” wrote the Food Network Personality. “Order a spritzer or something relatively clean and without a sugary mixer and ask for extra ice to lengthen it.” Would you like to end the meal on a sugary note? “Order a few desserts for the table and only have a bite or two.”

Giada De Laurentiis encourages flexibility when eating out

As a restaurant owner, De Laurentiis knows that hospitality managers want to keep their guests happy and recommends that you discuss your dining preferences directly.

“Don’t be afraid to ask what you want,” she said. “Most restaurants these days strive to meet their customers’ needs, especially when you ask politely.”

RELATED: Why Giada De Laurentiis Says You Don’t Have to Eliminate Food to Eat Well

When you have no choice but to order a less healthy meal, De Laurentiis recommends that you just dig in and enjoy every bite.

“If there really aren’t any great options on the menu, try not to fret or let the evening spoil you,” she wrote. “The real point is hanging out with your friends, not being perfect. It’s only one meal in a day, and the choices you made the rest of the time will do you good when you find yourself in a situation where all you need to eat is a plate of fried chicken. Tomorrow is always a different day. “

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Free and nutritious school lunches help create richer and healthier adults

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Universal school meals make students healthier and increase their lifetime income by 3%, according to a unique study from Lund University in Sweden published in The Review of Economic Studies.

Health disparities occur early in life and play an important role in adult economic outcomes. However, there have been few studies of the long-term effects of school nutrition policies aimed at counteracting them. Researchers at Lund University and Stockholm University can now show that universal school meals have significant long-term benefits for the education, general health and income of students.

“Today we take school meals for granted in Sweden. The fact is, when Sweden introduced free lunch in the 1940s, it was a very conscious investment. These cooked meals were nutritionally meticulously planned. So the question is: did it do it.” ? Influence student wellbeing in the long term? We wanted to find out, “says Petter Lundborg, Professor of Economics at Lund University.

Sweden, Finland and Estonia have long offered free school meals, unlike neighboring Norway and Denmark, where students bring their own lunch. In other countries like the US and UK, poorer students are offered a school lunch while others pay.

In the new study, researchers examine the Swedish school lunch program, which was gradually introduced in different communities from the mid-1940s. The program offered a nutritious school lunch to all Swedish elementary school children free of charge. The researchers focused on the introduction of school lunches between 1959 and 1969. They found that the initiative had positive effects on student sizes and health as young adults, their level of education and their livelihoods.

“Our study shows that universal efforts to provide children with nutritious meals can be viewed as a long-term investment. In other words, good nutrition for children also pays off later in life in terms of health, education and income, ”says Dan-Olof Rooth, Professor of Economics at the Institute for Social Research (SOFI) at Stockholm University.

The study shows, among other things, that both boys and girls who participated in the school feeding program throughout their school years grew taller than those who did not have access to the program. Students who received a school meal throughout the nine years of compulsory school grew nearly 1 cm tall and attended university more often than students with no access to the program. Above all, however, the students had a life income that was three percent higher.

“We also found some interesting differences in the effects of where children from poor households benefited the most, even when children from all households benefited to some extent. Students from poor families had a six percent higher lifetime income and students from other households had approximately two percent higher lifetime income. The reform thus benefited all students, both from poor and rich families, ”says Petter Lundborg.

Findings are interrelated: students ate nutritious food in school, they got taller and more educated, which can, in large part, explain why they had better incomes in life. However, the researchers found no long-term effects on mortality, morbidity, or sick leave.

The effects of school meals can also be caused by factors unrelated to diet. Therefore, the researchers also collected data on school absenteeism from municipal archives in Sweden. The researchers’ analysis shows that the introduction of the school breakfast did not lead to any change in school attendance, which was already high before the introduction of the school meal.

“A reasonable interpretation of our results is that when they ate a nutritious lunch, students were more receptive to what they were taught. This is in line with an earlier study that found test results in 11 year olds increased during the year following the introduction of nutritious school meals as part of the Jamie Oliver campaign in the UK, “says Dan-Olof Rooth.

Petter Lundborg and Dan-Olof Rooth, who carried out the study with Dr. Jesper Alex-Petersen believe that their findings are relevant to many Western countries today, although the Swedish school lunch program was introduced in the 1950s and 1960s. Sweden was a rich country where school children were not lacking in food, but parents lacking knowledge of healthy eating habits. The reform made school meals nutritious and the same for everyone.

“It is still important for many countries today because school meals and their nutritional content are a recurring topic. Our results show significant long-term economic benefits from school meals money well spent, “concludes Petter Lundborg.

About the course:

The researchers used newly collected historical data to gradually implement the program in Swedish municipalities between 1959 and 1969. During this period, 265 municipalities implemented the program, with roughly the same number of municipalities per year.

These historical data have been linked to administrative records showing the number of primary school students, approximately 1.5 million students born in 1942-1965. Using a difference-in-differences design, they estimated the impact of the school catering reform on a wide range of outcomes from the income and education registers, the military enlistment register, the medical birth register, and the hospital admission and death register.

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Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of press releases sent to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of information via the EurekAlert system.

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6 dietary changes to improve heart health – Explica .co

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It’s no secret to say that Diabetes is one of the most dangerous chronic diseasesassociated with a long list of degenerative complications. One of the main risk factors that worries most specialists is that close link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect both the circulatory system and the heart, which is where the name comes from (cardiovascular). The most important include diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and peripheral arterial thrombosis.

It is estimated that in the United States lThe prevalence of diabetes is 6.6% in the population aged 20 to 74 years and it is known that this percentage will increase further to 10% in the coming years. It is also estimated to be the death of American patients with diabetes for 15 to 20% of all deaths in the population over 25 years of age, and those numbers are doubled in patients over 40 years of age. The data doesn’t lie and is a clear warning, especially when you consider that the prevalence of diabetes in Western society is increasing due to an aging population, increasing obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Fortunately, a lot of treatment and prevention revolves around diet and habits. With that as a foundation, we’ve made it our mission to put together 6 expert recommended must-have eating habits that will be the perfect ally keep the heart strong and healthywhile they help keep blood sugar levels stable.

1. Eat more fiber

It’s no secret to say that fiber is one of the most important nutrients in any healthy diet. While it is vital for digestive, bowel, and weight loss function, it is known to be vital for heart health as it can help improve the level of cholesterol in the blood. In addition to increasing your consumption of high fiber foods, avoiding blood sugar spikes is also of great help. Fiber is very filling, so it makes it easier to control caloric intake and promotes weight loss. Great sources of fiber are fruits and vegetables; Nuts and seeds; Beans, peas and lentils; and whole grains, bet on adding them to your diet on a daily basis You can create healthy delicious combinations!

Fiber. / Photo: Shutterstock

2. Rely on the consumption of healthy fats

Not all sources of fat are created equal and so we have to say that fat is not always bad. In fact, unsaturated fat found in plant foods can help lower cholesterol, especially when it replaces saturated fat, which is mainly found in animal foods and a long list of highly processed foods. Consuming unsaturated fats has been shown to help reduce your risk of heart disease. The best sources of these types of healthy fats include foods like avocado, olive oil, vinaigrette dressings, nuts, seeds, and salmon. Best of all, they are very simple and versatile products for integration into the daily dieta, sprinkle nuts on the yogurt, prepare a rich salad with avocado, seeds and vinaigrette or a rich grilled salmon with avocado garnish. Remember, healthy fats are great to combine with carbohydrates, as the body digests them more slowly, which will help minimize blood sugar spikes.

Omega 3Healthy fats / Photo: Shutterstock

3. Eat foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids

Another type of fat that should not be missing from any single-minded nutrition plan good control of diabetes and cardiovascular health, are omega-3 fatty acids. It’s a special type of fat that has been shown to support heart health, and there are three main known types of omega-3 fatty acids: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA comes from plants and is considered to be Omega-3 “essential” because we have to get this fat through food, as our body cannot produce it itself. It is found in seeds like flax and chia, dried fruits like walnuts, and oils like soybeans and canola. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but the process is ineffective and must be ingested through food and supplements; The most common food source for EPA and DHA is oily fish. It has been shown that EPA and DHA are the best at protecting the heart. They’re also associated with great anti-inflammatory properties; they’re easy to find in oily fish like lounge, tuna, anchovies, and mackerel.

Fish steakOily fish. / Photo: Pexels

4. Rely on low-fat dairy products and lean meat

There have been many doubts about the consumption of these food groups, fortunately today we know that dairy products and meat are part of one healthy diet for diabetes and heart, but it is important to choose them carefully. Experts recommend reducing whole milk products, which are higher in saturated fat. This type of fat was made with a. connected increased risk of heart disease. It is advisable to rely more frequently on the consumption of low-fat and fat-free products, the same applies to meat: Put on lean meat variants in conjunction with other lean protein options like chicken, fish, and eggs, It keeps the absorption of saturated fatty acids to a minimum and at the same time supplies the body with important nutrients.

Filet.Filet. / Photo: Pixabay

5. Cook more at home

We all love to enjoy a restaurant meal More after a year in prison! However, it is important to be careful with repeating this delicious custom. Remember that most restaurant and take-away dishes are characterized by their high levels of calories, sodium, and saturated fat. The solution? Save it for special occasions and bet on cooking more at home, it’s not only fun and much healthier: it gives us control over what we eat, the quality of the ingredients and the methods of preparation. To improve the taste in a healthy way, recommend adding herbs and spices, 100% fruit and vegetable juices, vinegars, low-sodium broths, marinades, aromatic vegetables (such as onions and garlic), sauces made from pureed fruits and vegetables, and homemade sauces.

CookChef / Photo: Shutterstock

6. Use less oil when cooking

Another way to ensure healthier home cooking is to skip fried and high-fat recipes. Opt for cooking methods that use less oil, such as: fry, fry, sauté, poach, stew and bake. Most of the recipes that use these methods are based on using a few tablespoons of vegetable oil or olive oil in the recipe. Think about the importance of eating healthy unsaturated fats and bet on the use of olive oil and avocado.

Mediterranean cuisineOlive oil. / Photo: Shutterstock

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