Connect with us

Health

Breakthrough study shows defining traits are forged the moment we’re born

Published

on

There are still many unsolved puzzles about the human brain and how it evolved. Now, a new study published in Frontiers in Psychiatry sheds new light on the neurobiological origins of our individual traits.

Functional connectivity is the coordinated activity – activation or deactivation – over time between different brain regions, regardless of their physical proximity or the type of neural connections between them. Changes in functional connectivity can be a sign of mental disorders such as depression, eating disorders, and schizophrenia and are considered developmental.

We know that mental health is characterized by three functional brain networks. The first is hypoconnectivity within the frontoparietal network (FPN), which is involved in the cognitive control of emotions and attention. The second is hyperconnectivity within the standard mode network (DMN) involved in social cognition and wandering. And finally, hypoconnectivity within the homologous interhemispheric network (HIN) involved in the regulation of emotions.

Exploration of the Infant Brain

The researchers focused on two questions. First, to identify and map individual variability in the three defined functional brain networks (FPN, DMN and HIN) in newborns and one-month-old infants. To do this, the researchers used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in which brain activity is measured using a head cap.

They then investigated how the variability in functional connectivity can predict individual differences in child temperament. Childlike temperament refers to their innate personality that is present from birth. The researchers focused on three important dimensions of a child’s temperament: regulation or orientation (measured by cuddling, calming, and low-intensity joy), negative emotionality (fear, sadness, and distress), positive emotionality (laughing / smiling, activity level, and voice reactivity) . The researchers asked parents to fill out a questionnaire about their children’s temperament.

The results show for the first time that functional brain networks develop within the first month of life that influence our behavior. More specifically, the researchers were able to determine the functional connectivity in the three examined cortical brain networks in young children and found that these networks differed markedly in each child.

A unique study

This means that the neural connections in our brain that determine human behavioral traits are present from birth and are unique to each individual. “Our main results show that greater connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions shortly after birth is associated with improved behavioral regulation in human infants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that connectivity for this specific brain network develops early in human childhood and plays a role in accounting for individual differences in the emerging self-regulatory and control skills in infants, “says Co- Author Dr. Toby Grossmann from the University of Virginia and the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.

These results require further research to develop a deeper understanding of the role of functional brain connectivity in early human cognitive, emotional, and social development, and in particular research into psychiatric disorders. “There are a number of psychiatric disorders that have been linked to differences in functional connectivity in the brain networks examined in our study in young infants. Previous research has implied more extreme individual differences in these networks examined in a group of typically developing ones Infants to “Adults suffering from major depression. However, it remains an open question whether the established relationship between the brain and behavior in early infancy predicts long-term developmental outcomes, including psychiatric disorders. It is important to conduct large-scale longitudinal studies of neural development to determine whether the established brain-behavioral correlation is of psychiatric and clinical relevance. ”

###

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of press releases sent to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of information via the EurekAlert system.

Health

Michigan confirms 1st human case of hantavirus, a disease spread by rodents

Published

on

Earlier this week, Michigan health officials reported the state’s first confirmed case of Sin Nombre hantavirus, a disease spread by rodents but not between individuals.

The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) announced that an adult woman in the Washtenaw district was recently hospitalized with severe lung disease from the Sin Nombre hantavirus. The person was likely exposed while cleaning an unoccupied apartment that showed signs of active rodent infestation, MDHHS said.

Related: Tick risk is now rife in Michigan – what you should know

display

The hantavirus was first discovered in 1993 in the southwestern United States as responsible for hantavirus lung syndrome (HPS) in sick patients. Since then, HPS has infected people in the United States and America. Hantavirus infections are associated with domestic, work, or leisure activities that involve people coming into contact with infected rodents. Most of the cases have been identified in adults and usually appear in spring and summer.

As of last year: CDC warns of “unusual or aggressive” rodents foraging in the midst of COVID-19

“HPS is caused by some strains of hantavirus and is a rare but serious and sometimes fatal respiratory disease that can occur one to five weeks after a person has been exposed to fresh urine, feces or saliva from infected rodents,” said Dr. Joneigh Khaldun. Chief Medical Executive and Chief Deputy for Health at MDHHS. “Anyone exposed to hantavirus-infected rodents is at risk for HPS, and healthcare providers with a suspected hantavirus case should contact their local health department to report the case and discuss options for confirmatory testing.”

display

Humans become infected when freshly dried material that is contaminated with rodent excretions is disturbed and inhaled, gets into cracks in the skin or mucous membrane or when contaminated food or water is swallowed. Rodent bites can also transmit hantaviruses. The highest risk of exposure is when entering or cleaning structures that have been infected by rodents. There are no documented cases of human-to-human hantavirus transmission in the United States

Related: Metro Detroit is among the worst areas for rats in the US

Symptoms of HPS may initially be non-specific and include fever, chills, body aches, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The disease can progress to coughing and shortness of breath. HPS has a 40% death rate.

display

“We can prevent and reduce the risk of hantavirus infection by taking precautions and being aware of the possibility of it,” says Dr. Juan Luis Marquez, medical director for the Washtenaw County Health Department. “Use rubber, latex, vinyl, or nitrile gloves when cleaning rodent-infested areas, ventilate the areas for at least 30 minutes before working, and make sure to thoroughly disinfect or disinfect the areas before cleaning.” Wet the chlorine solution. “

Hantavirus cycle. (NSF)

Hantaviruses are a family of viruses that are mainly distributed by wild rodents and are found around the world. Several hantaviruses have been identified in the United States that can infect humans, and each hantavirus has a primary rodent host. The main hantavirus in the United States that causes HPS is Sin Nombre virus, which is spread by the deer mouse and white-footed mouse.

The greatest risk of hantavirus infection is opening up or cleaning up closed rodent-infested buildings without adequate protection. Healthcare providers with a suspected hantavirus should contact their local health department to report the case and discuss options for confirmatory testing.

display

Hantaviruses are viruses and are susceptible to most disinfectants (dilute chlorine solutions, detergents, general household disinfectants including those based on phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, and hypochlorite). Depending on environmental conditions, these viruses are likely to survive for less than a week indoors and much shorter periods of time (hours) when exposed to sunlight outdoors. Special precautions should be taken when cleaning up after rodents. If the rodent infestation is severe, it is recommended to consult a pest controller.

COVID-19 vs. Hantavirus Lung Syndrome (CDC)

Copyright 2021 by WDIV ClickOnDetroit – All rights reserved.

Continue Reading

Health

Delta Variant Producing More Severe Illness, Doctors in China Say

Published

on

As the delta variant of the coronavirus spreads in southeast China, doctors are finding that the symptoms are different and more dangerous than those they saw when the first version of the virus spread to downtown Wuhan in late 2019.

Patients are getting sicker and worsening much faster, doctors told state television Thursday and Friday. Four fifths of symptomatic cases developed a fever, they said, although it was not clear how this compared to previous cases. The virus levels that are detected in their bodies rise to higher levels than previously seen and then drop only slowly, the doctors said.

Up to 12 percent of patients become seriously or seriously ill within three to four days of the onset of symptoms, said Guan Xiangdong, director of intensive care medicine at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou City, where the outbreak has concentrated. In the past, the proportion was 2 or 3 percent, but occasionally up to 10 percent, he said.

Doctors in the UK and Brazil have reported similar trends in the variants circulating in these countries, but the severity of these variants has not yet been confirmed.

The testimony from China is the latest indication of the dangers posed by Delta, which the World Health Organization described as a “worrying variant” last month. First identified this spring in India, where it has been blamed for widespread suffering and death, Delta has since become the predominant variant in the UK, where doctors suspect it is more contagious and may infect some people who only take one of two doses from a. have received Covid19 vaccination.

However, China has uniquely detailed data as it has essentially universal testing near outbreaks that allow officials to gather detailed information on the magnitude of the cases.

The proliferation of Delta in southeast China is drawing more attention to the effectiveness of China’s homemade vaccines. The Chinese authorities have not stated how many of the new infections have occurred in people who have been vaccinated. In some other countries where Chinese-made vaccines are widely available, including Seychelles and Mongolia, infections are increasing among those vaccinated, although few patients are reported to have developed serious illnesses.

Last week near Shenzhen there were a handful of cases of the alpha variant, which first appeared in the UK.

With some other parts of the world still struggling to source and run large numbers of coronavirus tests, southeast China has used its local production of scarce chemicals to run tests on a remarkable scale. Authorities said they carried out 32 million tests in Guangzhou, which has a population of 18 million, and 10 million in the neighboring city of Foshan, which has 7 million people.

Guangzhou has also isolated and quarantined tens of thousands of residents who were near the infected. The testing and quarantine appear to have slowed but not stopped the outbreak. China’s National Health Commission announced on Friday that nine new cases had been found in Guangzhou the day before.

“The epidemic is not over yet and there is still a risk of virus transmission,” said Chen Bin, deputy director of Guangzhou City Health Commission.

Albee Zhang contributed to the research.

Continue Reading

Health

COVID-induced isolation has impacted mental health and substance use disorder | News, Sports, Jobs

Published

on

EAGLE RIVER – Among the many topics discussed at the Mental Health Presentation in Eagle River on May 27, was the significant increase in mental illness and substance abuse. In that regard, the Western Upper Peninsula is a microcosm of the nation as a whole.

Jennifer Anderson, a state-certified peer recovery coach at Phoenix House in Calumet Township, briefly discussed the link between substance abuse and the COVID-19 pandemic.

“The past year has been a terrible one because of isolation and the rise in alcohol and drug use.” she said to the presentation audience. Her duties include Anderson as a leader in initiating, achieving, and sustaining long-term recovery from addiction. The link has received many studies across the country.

Dual Diagnosis.org published a report on May 25th, 2021 stating:

“Mental illness and substance abuse are directly or indirectly related to negative effects on the user. Why could a person drink a lot when they are mentally ill? The degree of correlation between the two terms is also not disputed by any informed party. The connection between mental illness and substance abuse is obvious to the layman and visible to the specialist. There are different types of mental illness with different degrees of severity. “

The April 28, New Hampshire Business Review reported that a major side effect of COVID-19 was increased alcohol consumption in people with anxiety and depression, especially those under the age of 40, according to a study by New York University’s School of Global Public Health. Since COVID, alcohol consumption has increased 40 percent in people under 40 with anxiety or depression, 30 percent in 41 to 59 year olds, and around 20 percent in those 60 and older, according to the NYU report. These trends that are now weighing on detox clinics and driving requests for alcohol treatment programs soaring.

The Business Review went on to say that Nielsen saw national alcohol sales increase 54% for the past week than some U.S. states as a containment strategy for Coronavirus Disease Transmission 2019 (COVID-19) stay-at-home orders started March 21, 2020 compared to last year; Online sales grew 262% from 2019. Three weeks later, the World Health Organization warned that drinking alcohol during the pandemic could potentially exacerbate health concerns and risk behaviors.

Dual Diagnosis.org’s report, Connection between Substance Use Disorder and Mental Illness, authored by Ben Lesser, found similar results to those reported by the review:

“A study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) that was published in Science Focus.” Lesser reported: “A connection between mental illness and the consumption of addictive substances has been proven. It has been observed that people with a mental disorder are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol, including:

– 40% of the cigarettes on the market.

– 44% cocaine.

The NBER report also notes that people with medically diagnosed mental disorders use alcohol and other drugs through addiction in certain situations in their everyday life, with the following proportions:

– 68% of cigarettes

– 69% alcohol

– 84% cocaine

“It is common knowledge that substance abuse and mental disorders go hand in hand” Less continued. “There can be different combinations of causes and symptoms, each leading to different treatment options and treatments with a double diagnosis.”

Authors Lawrence Robinson, Melinda Smith, MA, and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. reported in their helpguide.org article from September 2020: “Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Health”, that it can be difficult to identify a double diagnosis.

“It takes time to figure out what might be a mental disorder and what might be a drug or alcohol problem.” it says in the article. “Signs and symptoms also vary depending on the mental health problem and the type of substance being abused, be it alcohol, recreational drugs, or prescription drugs. For example, the signs of depression and marijuana abuse might look very different from the signs of schizophrenia and alcohol abuse. “

When the disorders occur concurrently, the article goes on to say, both the mental health problem and drug or alcohol addiction have their own unique symptoms that can affect your ability to function at work or school, to have a stable family life, the Having difficulties coping with life and relating to others. To make matters worse, the disturbances occurring at the same time also influence each other. If a mental health problem is left untreated, the substance abuse problem usually worsens. And as alcohol or drug abuse increases, mental health problems usually increase too.

Co-occurring drug abuse problems and mental health problems are more common than many people realize. According to reports published in the Journal of the American Medical Association:

– About 50% of people with severe mental disorders are affected by substance abuse.

– 37% of alcohol addicts and 53% of drug addicts also have at least one severe mental illness.

– Of all people diagnosed as mentally ill, 29% abuse alcohol or drugs.

“While substance abuse problems and mental health problems don’t get better when they’re ignored – in fact, they likely get a lot worse – the important thing to know is that you don’t have to feel this way.” the article reports. “There are things you can do to defeat your demons, repair your relationships, and begin your journey to recovery. With the right support, self-help, and treatment, you can overcome a concurrent disorder, regain your self-esteem, and get your life back on track. “

In the area, one of these things could involve the Phoenix House in Calumet Township.

The Phoenix House offers both inpatient and outpatient services for addiction healing. The residential care program is aimed at men aged 18 and over who suffer from alcohol and drug abuse and need a safe, structured environment to focus on their recovery. Our residential facility assists consumers with drug abuse treatment, life skills development, medical needs, psychological and spiritual development. The outpatient treatment program caters to adults aged 18 and over who want to address their alcohol or drug problems with more flexibility and in a less structured environment. Outpatient programs allow patients to deal with their substance abuse on a weekly basis while they go about their work, school, or other life commitments.

Get the latest news and more in your inbox

Continue Reading
Advertisement

Trending