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Lowering iron in fat cells prevented weight gain in mice: Newsroom

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DALLAS – June 28, 2021 – Lowering iron levels in fat cells prevented mice on a high-fat diet from developing obesity and related health problems by limiting the amount of lipids absorbed by the gut, scientists at UT Southwestern report in a new Study. The findings, published online in Cell Metabolism, could eventually lead to new strategies to protect people from obesity and related diseases.

Zhuzhen Zhang, Ph.D. (left), lecturer in internal medicine, and Philipp E. Scherer, Ph.D., professor of internal medicine and cell biology

“It’s easy to say that we should eat fewer calories – but at the same time we all like to eat,” says study director Philipp E. Scherer, Ph.D., professor in the departments of internal medicine and cell biology at the UTSW. “By consuming less lipids, these animals kept their weight low and had no secondary consequences of being overweight.”

It has long been known that systemic iron deficiency causes anemia, explains Scherer, with symptoms such as extreme fatigue and weakness. Researchers have also studied the effects of iron deprivation from certain cell populations, which typically causes cells to become dysfunctional and even die. However, he adds, researchers have not tested this manipulation in fat cells.

When Scherer and his team used a breeding technique to produce mice with a significantly lower iron content in their fat cells, the scientists expected the animals to be in poor health. On the contrary, they stayed healthy even on a high-fat diet that made their cage mates highly obese. While the normal “wild-type” mice developed obesity-related health problems, including insulin resistance and high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, the mice with low-iron adipose tissue were leaner and did not develop any of these problems. Another genetic manipulation that lowered iron levels in the fat cells of adult mice had the same beneficial health effects, protecting the mice from metabolic disorders caused by a high-fat diet, and even improving the health of the mice afterward they became obese, which reversed most of them the negative consequences associated with obesity.

Mice with lower iron levels in their fat cells did not gain weight after a high fat diet and remained healthy, while normal mice gained weight and developed obesity-related problems.

In their search for the cause of this phenomenon, Scherer and his colleagues found that the intestinal cells of mice with low-iron fat absorbed fewer lipids, which significantly reduced the number of calories consumed. Scherer suspects that low-iron fat cells can send a chemical signal to convey their iron status to the intestines, which causes the tissue to absorb less lipids. However, the nature of this signal is still unknown.

If researchers could find a way to safely rid fat cells of iron, or to artificially deliver the chemical signal, they might eventually be able to improve human metabolic health.

“The next step we have to take is to find out how fat speaks to the intestines,” says Scherer.

Zhuzhen Zhang in the Scherer Laboratory was the lead author of this study. Other researchers who have contributed are Jan-Bernd Funcke, Zhenzhen Zi, Shangang Zhao, Leon Straub, Qingzhang Zhu, Clair Crewe, Yu (Aaron) An, Shiuhwei Chen, Na Li, May-Yun Wang, Alexandra L. Ghaben , Charlotte Lee, Laurent Gautron, Luke J. Engelking, Prithvi Raj, Yingfeng Deng, Ruth Gordillo, and Christine M. Kusminski, all from UT Southwestern, and Yi Zhu from Baylor College of Medicine.

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health Grants RC2-DK118620, R01-DK55758, R01-DK099110, P01-DK088761, P01-AG051459, AHA825982, and K01-DK125447.

Scherer holds the Gifford O. Touchstone, Jr. and Randolph G. Touchstone Distinguished Chair in Diabetes Research and the Touchstone / West Distinguished Chair in Diabetes Research.

Via the UT Southwestern Medical Center

UT Southwestern, one of the leading academic medical centers in the country, integrates groundbreaking biomedical research with exceptional clinical care and training. The institution’s faculty has won six Nobel Prizes and includes 24 members from the National Academy of Sciences, 16 members from the National Academy of Medicine, and 13 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators. The full-time faculty, with more than 2,800 employees, is responsible for groundbreaking medical advances and is committed to quickly translating science-based research into new clinical treatments. UT Southwestern doctors care for more than 117,000 hospital patients, more than 360,000 emergency rooms in approximately 80 specialties, and oversee nearly 3 million outpatient visits per year.

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It’s time to expand the definition of ‘women’s health’

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Common diseases such as cardiovascular disease are under-researched in women, making diagnosis, prognosis and treatment difficult in women.Photo credit: BSIP / UIG / Getty

More than one eighth of the world’s population has a condition that can cause pain, profuse bleeding, and decreased fertility, all possible consequences of benign tumors known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids. Fibroids can be debilitating and are a common reason for surgical removal of the uterus.

Still, fibroids have received relatively little attention from scientists, either in academia or in pharmaceutical companies. The cause of the disease – and how to reduce its impact on fertility – has been debated for decades, leaving doctors unsure how best to treat people.

Unfortunately, fibroids are just one of many underrated aspects of health in people who were female at birth. (This includes cis women, transgender men, and some non-binary and intersex people; the term “women” in the remainder of this editorial refers to cis women.) Clinical and preclinical studies tend to focus equally on men: a third of the Individuals participating in cardiovascular disease clinical trials are women, and an analysis of neuroscientific studies published in six journals in 2014 found that 40% of them used male animals only. Two studies and an article published in Nature on Aug. 5 shed light on the advances in women’s health research – and the need for more.

A study examines the molecular origins of fibroids and reveals a possible mechanism by which tumors form. Drugs targeting key molecular actors in this process could open up new treatment options with further studies.

The other study takes a multidisciplinary approach, examining both the genetic mechanisms and epidemiological factors involved in ovarian aging, which leads to menopause and fertility loss. The age at which women experience menopause varies widely – with a range of around 20 years for healthy women – and fertility can drop dramatically for up to a decade before it begins.

This work expanded the list of genes that contribute to early ovarian aging and highlights the importance of DNA repair mechanisms in determining the age at which women experience menopause.

Both studies illustrate the advances that can be made if the health challenges of women are brought to the fore. However, advocates of women’s health warn that the field is often too narrowly considered. The study of health and disease in women should not be limited to conditions that affect women only. Conditions like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and heart disease affect men and women differently. Such diseases need to be investigated in both men and women, and the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment may need to differ between the sexes.

Heart attacks, for example, are one of the leading causes of death in both women and men, but women do not always have the “typical” symptoms that men normally experience. Women are also more prone to blood clots after a heart attack, but are less likely to be prescribed anticoagulant drugs by their doctors. Women are 50% more likely to get an initial misdiagnosis after a heart attack than men and are less likely to be prescribed medication to reduce the risk of a second attack, according to the British Heart Foundation.

When it comes to exercise, women are at risk of serious long-term injury if we continue to model head injury training and management on data from men. As our News Feature reports, it is becoming increasingly clear that women experience head injuries and recover from them very differently than men. Understanding why women are nearly twice as likely to experience concussions as men in sports like soccer and rugby requires multi-disciplinary research – and to understand why women take longer to recover from such injuries.

So far, the evidence is sparse, but preliminary data suggest structural differences in the brain. Axons in the brain of women are wired to thinner microtubules that tear more easily; Hormonal fluctuations should also contribute to this. Biomechanics could also play a role – in rugby, for example, it seems that women fall differently when attacked, which could increase the risk of a concussion. Exercise programs designed specifically for women can help alleviate these injuries.

But the clear message from sports researchers is that it is no longer acceptable to exclusively use data from men in these studies. And when women are included, the data needs to be broken down by gender and include a sufficient number of women. A recent study examining MRI images of elite rugby players included women (KA Zimmerman Brain Commun. 3, fcab133; 2021) but of the 44 elite players, only 3 were women.

But the relative lack of women on committees and scientific advisory boards has meant that few of these decision-makers have direct personal experiences with women’s health needs or research gaps. It is all the more important that funders consult the public when determining research priorities.

Since 2016, the US National Institutes of Health has required researchers to conduct preclinical studies in both male and female animals, tissues and cells, or to provide an explanation as to why it is not appropriate to study both sexes. Now it is up to other funders, researchers, and journals to amplify the impact of this change by making sure to include gender-specific data in publications. Funders should also strengthen the resources allocated to support studies of health and disease in women and keep track of how much money is being used to support such research in all areas, not just gynecological diseases. What is measured is done.

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Coronavirus US: It could be February before all eligible Americans get at least one vaccine dose, analysis shows

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More than 90 million eligible people in the US are still unvaccinated. And although the seven-day average of people who get vaccinated each day is the highest since July 4th at 446,300, many experts say the U.S. is still not where it needs to be to get the pandemic – and the rapidly expanding delta variant – under control.

With less than half of the population fully vaccinated, cases have risen again, leading to serious illness.

On Tuesday, according to new data from the US Department of Health, more than 50,000 hospital beds across the country were occupied by Covid-19 patients for the first time since February. That number is more than three times what it was a month ago.

“We’re not crying for Wolf here. This surge that we are currently going through has the potential to be the worst surge we have ever seen – and it already looks like it, ”said former US surgeon general Dr. Jerome Das Adams said in a live online interview with the Washington Post on Tuesday.

The director of the National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci said Tuesday he would like the US to get more than a million vaccinations a day to close the vaccination gap.

“We may get there when mandates come, but it can’t be 250,000, 500,000 a day, otherwise it will go well into winter. I want to arrive earlier,” said Fauci.

With the spread of the delta variant, it may not be possible to completely stop the spread of the coronavirus, said Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, on Tuesday.

“But we could still get to a place where this becomes a nuisance rather than a threat to your life.”

Experts are considering boosters for immunocompromised people, says Fauci

Although experts have said the data so far does not suggest the general population needs booster vaccines, Fauci said efforts are underway to get them for people who are immunocompromised.

Some conditions – including autoimmune diseases, transplants, and cancer that are treated with chemotherapy – affect people’s immune systems.

“The people we know almost always don’t have an adequate response, so the need to give them an extra boost is much more pressing than the general population,” Fauci said during a virtual event hosted by Virginia Governor Ralph Northam on Tuesday was organized.

The CDC’s vaccine advisors have met to discuss whether immunocompromised people may need additional protection from a booster dose, but have not yet made a formal recommendation or voted on guidelines.

“We are working very hard to put the regulatory mechanism in place very soon to give these individuals a boost that could, if possible, bring their immunity to the level it should be,” said Fauci.

During a discussion hosted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies on Tuesday, Fauci said it was “very likely” that Covid-19 variants have developed in the bodies of immunosuppressed people.

People with immunosuppression may not be able to fight off Covid-19 infections for weeks or even months, which means the virus has plenty of time to develop and change.

“Variations, as we all know, came about because of the pressure the human immune system put on the virus, very likely from people who are immunocompromised … / or died and then essentially created a variant,” Fauci said.

“Significant” increase in the number of children and adolescents

As the new school year raises concerns about protecting children from Covid-19, the American Academy of Pediatrics said Tuesday that the number of cases in children has increased “significantly”.

Almost 72,000 children and young people were infected with Covid-19 last week – five times as many as at the end of June, the group said.

The definition of a child varies by state, but generally includes children up to the age of 17 or 18.

Covid-19 protocols vary across the country, but when kids go back to school, counties need to know how to respond quickly to outbreaks.

Covid-19 cases in US children and adolescents rose 84% in a week, the pediatrician group says

Districts need to be prepared to introduce contact tracing, testing, quarantining people who have been exposed to the virus, and isolating people with infections, Dr. William Schaffner, a professor at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and medical director of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, told CNN.

While most schools follow these steps to isolate cases, conduct contact tracing, and testing, response plans may vary from state and school district to school district, Kim Anderson, executive director of the National Education Association, told CNN.

“As we understand it, it depends on which district you are in. The district should have very well thought out breakout plans that use the voices of educators, parents, and community members in drawing up those plans, and they should have them. ” Plans that follow CDC recommendations, “said Anderson.

“Our recommendation to all students and school districts is to follow the medical experts and adhere to the CDC,” she said.

CNN’s Deidre McPhillips, Matthew Hilk, Jacqueline Howard, Virginia Langmaid, Lauren Mascarenhas and Jen Christensen contributed to this report.

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A look at depression – The Fort Morgan Times

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Did you know that 1 in 10 adults have depression?

Mental health problems are one of the most common reasons to see a doctor, but many people don’t know how to diagnose or treat mental illness.

What are the symptoms of depression?

Depression is the most common type of mental illness and it can affect people in different ways.

Most people with depression experience sadness, dejection, frequent crying, hopelessness, or despair, while some others also notice a lack of emotion. These feelings usually appear over several days and can make it difficult for people to function.

People with depression may also have changes in weight, fatigue, slow speech, difficulty concentrating or remembering, loss of interest in their hobbies, too much or too little sleep, feelings of anxiety, or excessive guilt.

Symptoms of depression include hallucinations or thoughts of suicide, harming yourself, or having thoughts of harming others. If you feel at risk of suicide, please call 911 or the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 immediately.

What Causes Depression?

Although the exact cause of depression is not clear, many studies suggest that changes in the structure of the brain and chemical balance contribute to depression. As such, depression is a medical disease.

It also causes changes throughout the body and can affect many of the body systems outside of the brain.

Depression is more common in young adults and the elderly, and more common in women than men. People with medical conditions are also more likely to develop depression.

diagnosis

If you have any of the symptoms listed above or have any concerns about your mood, please contact your GP. Your doctor will take a detailed medical history and may give you a questionnaire to check the severity of your depression.

Many other mental disorders share similarities with depression, including: bipolar disorder, anxiety, ADHD, and grief, so it is important to let your doctor know about your symptoms as much as possible. You may also be screened for other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

treatment

Treating depression has many benefits, including improved mood and energy, better everyday functions, and even improvements in conditions like heart disease.

In people with depression, the brain’s chemicals are different from those in a healthy brain, so drug treatments are aimed at restoring the brain’s chemical balance. There are different types of medications that can be used, and most depression medications are taken on a daily basis. If you need medication, your doctor will help you find medications that are right for you.

In addition to medication, many people with depression also benefit from advice (also called therapy) from a behavioral medicine specialist, such as a counselor or psychologist.

Both counseling and drug treatment may be needed for people with more severe depression.

Depression can last for a lifetime, but it can also go away in a few months or years, so people with depression should see their medical teams regularly.

Colorado Plains Medical Center is proud to work with the Fort Morgan Times, in partnership with healthcare partners such as Salud Family Health Center, to provide relevant health-related information and awareness to the communities we serve. Please watch out for our bi-weekly articles in the Fort Morgan Times.

Dr. Claire Bovet is a general practitioner at the Salud Family Health Center.

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