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Which diets influence the risk?

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Share on PinterestNew research examines the links between different diets and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Cathy Scola / Getty Images

  • Sudden cardiac death is responsible for about 1 in 7.5 deaths in the United States.
  • Researchers have shown that diet plays an important role in a person’s cardiovascular health.
  • In the present study, the researchers found that people who followed the Mediterranean diet most closely and who did not have coronary artery disease had a lower risk of sudden cardiac death.
  • People who ate primarily a traditional southern diet that included more fried foods and sugary drinks were at higher risk of sudden cardiac death.

In a new study, researchers found a positive association between the southern diet – which includes more fried foods and sugary drinks – and sudden cardiac death. They also linked the Mediterranean diet with a lower risk of sudden cardiac death.

The study, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, provides further evidence of the importance of diet to cardiovascular health.

Death certificates show that sudden cardiac death is a factor in 1 in 7.5 deaths in the United States. A major cause is coronary artery disease.

According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), a person can improve their heart health by making changes to their diet. The ODPHP suggests that people eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, a variety of proteins, and unsaturated fats.

Research has shown that the Mediterranean diet, which focuses on legumes, vegetables, fruits, fish, and grains, can protect against cardiovascular disease.

Researchers have also found an inverse link between the Mediterranean diet and sudden cardiac death. However, the study had significant limitations as it included a vastly disproportionate number of white participants and was mostly focused on women.

In the present study, the researchers relied on data from the US cohort Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study. This cohort consists of 30,239 African American and white adults aged 45 years or older, all of whom participated in the study between 2003 and 2007.

Researchers excluded participants who lacked appropriate recorded information or who was not available at follow-up. This left them with a sample size of 21,069 for the current analysis. Of these participants, 33% were black and 56% were women.

A total of 56% of the participants lived in the southeastern United States. This area is known as the Stroke Belt because it has had a higher than average death rate from stroke since the 1940s.

The researchers took background health and demographic information from participants at the start of the study and asked them to complete a food intake frequency questionnaire each year to show how many of 110 different foods they had eaten in the past 12 months.

Using this data, the researchers were able to give each participant a Mediterranean diet score that reflects their adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

The researchers were also able to identify five nutritional patterns:

  1. The convenience pattern: This eating pattern mainly consisted of pasta, pizza, and Mexican and Chinese food.
  2. The vegetable pattern: People who followed this pattern ate lots of vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, yogurt, chicken, and fish.
  3. The candy pattern: This pattern included large amounts of desserts, candies, chocolate, and sugary cereals.
  4. The southern pattern: The southern diet is rich in fried foods, sweetened beverages, processed meats and offal, and eggs.
  5. The alcohol and salad pattern: People who followed this pattern consumed a lot of leafy vegetables, dressings, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages.

According to lead author Prof. James M. Shikany, professor of medicine and assistant director of research in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, “All participants had some level of adherence to each pattern, but usually adhered to.” some patterns more and others less. “

“For example, it would not be uncommon for a person who adheres strongly to the southern pattern to also adhere to the plant-based pattern, but to a much lesser extent.”

Researchers attempted to contact participants roughly every 6 months for a period of 10 years, which allowed them to record all cardiovascular events, including sudden cardiac death. During this period, 401 cases of sudden cardiac death were recorded.

The researchers found that the participants who adhered most closely to the southern diet were 46% more likely to have sudden cardiac death than those who adhered least to it.

Conversely, those who adhered most closely to the Mediterranean diet had a 26% lower risk of sudden cardiac death than those who adhered least.

According to Prof. Shikany, “Although this study was observational, the results suggest that diet may be a modifiable risk factor for sudden cardiac death and therefore diet is a risk factor over which we have some control.”

“Improving nutrition through a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish – like the Mediterranean diet – and low-fried foods, offal, and processed meats – characteristics of the southern-style diet – can reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death . “

However, Prof. Shikany believes that people who want to switch from a southern diet to a Mediterranean diet should not try to do so all at once.

“I suggest making small, gradual changes in diet – they seem to be more sustainable,” said Prof. Shikany.

“For example: eat meat (especially processed meat) only a few days a week instead of daily and reduce the portion sizes; Add fish 1 or 2 days a week instead of always eating beef or pork; add vegetables as a side dish more often instead of always potatoes or other starchy side dishes; Reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages consumed daily; and reduce but not omit sweets (make them an occasional treat). “

“It really depends on the person’s basic diet, but there is almost always room for small changes, with the aim of incorporating those changes into the normal diet and building up into larger changes over time. Large, large-scale dietary changes made all at once, however, almost never last – gradual seems to be best. “

Prof. Shikany believes that both clinicians and the government have a role to play in improving people’s diet.

“With the medical community in mind, talk to patients about their diet at every opportunity,” said Prof. Shikany. “Although nutritional science has made important advances in what we consider to be a healthy diet for the prevention of chronic diseases, the message does not always get through to patients.”

“Just as patients are (or at least should) asked about smoking and exercise, they should also be asked about their diet and suggestions for improving their diet made at every regular check-up.”

“In terms of government, there are barriers to eating foods that are not considered healthy, like taxes on things like sugar-sweetened beverages, which can help.”

“I think we should also think about how we can create incentives to eat healthier foods, for example by lowering health insurance premiums for healthy eating, similar to what we do for non-smokers. Certainly this would be more difficult to document for the diet, and [it would] Insurance company involvement rather than government involvement, but I think healthy eating incentives are a topic of discussion. “

Looking ahead, Prof. Shikany acknowledged that more research is needed to confirm and expand on the initial results.

“The results of this study need to be confirmed in other populations and cohorts to see if our results hold up in study samples of different ages, in participants of different socio-economic status, and in underserved / underserved populations. In other words, we want to know how generalizable our results are, ”says Prof. Shikany.

“Much more research is also needed into behavior change related to diet – how do we get people to change their diet? We know a lot about how people should eat, but getting them to make changes is really the biggest challenge. “

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Men’s Health

Staring at yourself on Zoom impacts mental health, especially for women

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In the past few years, people across the world have spent more time on video chat programs like Zoom and FaceTime than ever before. These applications mimic in-person encounters by allowing users to see the people they are communicating with. But unlike in-person communications, these programs often also show users a video of themselves. Instead of catching the occasional glimpse of themselves in a mirror, now people are often looking at themselves for hours a day.

We are psychologists who study society’s focus on women’s appearance and the consequences of this constant scrutiny. We were immediately fascinated by the new dynamic created by the Zoom world. While critical for public safety during the pandemic, we believe that virtual classes, meetings and the like lead to a continuous focus on one’s own appearance – something research suggests is harmful to mental health, especially for women.

Objectification is a bit of a buzzword, but the meaning is rather literal: being seen or treated as an object. This often comes in the form of sexual objectification, where bodies and body parts are seen as separate from the person to which they are attached. Advertisements are rife with examples of this, where close-ups of certain body parts are often shown to help market a product, such as a bottle of cologne graphically nestled between a woman’s breasts.

Not surprisingly, women’s bodies are treated as objects way more often than men’s. Because women and girls are socialized in a culture that prioritizes their appearance, they internalize the idea that they are objects. Consequently, women self-objectify, treating themselves as objects to be looked at.

Researchers investigate self-objectification in experimental studies by having study participants focus on their appearance and then measure cognitive, emotional, behavioral or physiological outcomes. Research has shown that being near a mirror, taking a picture of oneself and feeling that one’s appearance is being evaluated by others all increase self-objectification. When you log in to a virtual meeting, you are essentially doing all of these things at once.

What does self-objectification do?

Thinking of yourself as an object can lead to changes in a person’s behavior and physical awareness, and has also been shown to negatively affect mental health in a number of ways. While these experiences with self-objectification lead both women and men to focus on their appearance, women tend to face many more negative consequences.

Research suggests that experiencing self-objectification is cognitively taxing for women. In a seminal study done in 1998, researchers showed that when women put on a new swimsuit and viewed themselves in a mirror, the self-objectification this produced caused women to perform poorly on math problems. Men’s math performance was not affected by this objectifying experience.

Further, experiencing objectification has behavioral and physiological consequences. In the aforementioned study, trying on a swimsuit produced feelings of shame among women, which in turn led to restrained eating. Other research has shown that when women think of themselves as objects, they speak less in mixed gender groups.

Self-objectification also leads women to, in a sense, distance themselves from their own bodies. This can cause worse engine performance as well as difficulty recognizing one’s own emotional and bodily states. One study showed that girls who were prone to self-objectification were less physically coordinated than girls who showed less self-objectification.

In a paper we published in 2021, our team showed that women who think of themselves as objects have difficulty recognizing their own body temperature. To test this, we asked women how cold they felt while standing outside nightclubs and bars on chilly nights. We found that the more a woman was focused on her appearance, the less connection there was between the amount of clothing she was wearing and how cold she felt.

In some women, self-objectification can become the default way of thinking of themselves and navigating the world. High levels of this self-objectification can be associated with mental health consequences, including disordered eating, increased anxiety over one’s appearance and depression.

Evidence of harm

While we are not aware of any research directly exploring the connection between video meetings and self-objectification, some recent studies suggest that our concerns are well founded.

One study found that the more time women who are focused on their looks spent on video calls, the less satisfied they were with their appearance. Facial dissatisfaction also seems to play a role in Zoom fatigue, with women across all races reporting higher levels of Zoom fatigue than their male counterparts.

For better or worse, the virtualization of daily life is here to stay. One way to reduce the negative effects of endless video meetings is to use the “hide self-view” function during online interactions. This hides your image from yourself but not others.

Turning off self-view is easy to do and may help some people, but many others – including us – feel that this puts them at a disadvantage. This may be because being aware of your appearance has benefits, despite the risk of self-objectification and the harms it brings. A huge body of research shows that looking attractive has tangible social and economic benefits, for women more so than for men. By monitoring your appearance, it is possible to anticipate how you will be evaluated and adjust accordingly. Therefore, we expect that people, especially women, will continue to keep the camera on for the duration of their Zoom calls.

A huge amount of previous research suggests that Zoom calls are a perfect storm for self-objectification and that the harms disproportionately affect women. It seems that the already uneven playing field for women is exacerbated in online social interactions. Any small reprieve from staring at a literal projection of yourself will be a net gain for your well-being, especially for women.

This article is republished from The Conversation, an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts, under a Creative Commons license.

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Men’s Health

Ebenezer Samuel Shares 3 Factors Every Workout Program Needs

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You might have a hard time determining exactly what you need for your workout plan. That’s okay! There are some specific exercises that you know you should probably include in your training in some form, and your goals (and time and energy constraints) will dictate much of the rest.

Still, there are a few factors that every training plan should include if you want to build muscle, improve your strength, and move better. Men’s Health fitness director Ebenezer Samuel, CSCS is here to help explain.

“This is a good way to make sure that you’re filling in gaps in your program,” he says of these guidelines. “It’s gonna help you stay nice and strong and help you build the muscle you want.”

The 3 Things Your Workout Program Needs

  • Workout Must 1: Move Fast

    1 to 3 times per week

    Samuel wants you to move almost at least once a week as part of your training plan. That doesn’t just mean that you should pencil in a long jogging session every weekend, however; he wants this fast movement to be with a definite purpose.

    “What I want you to do is think about moving weight with urgency,” he says. “One of the first things you’re gonna lose is the ability to be explosive, so we’ve got to work extra hard to maintain that.”

    Crucially, you won’t be able to go as hard as Samuel wants for every single rep. You’ll be much more limited in your explosive movements than other exercises. For this, he suggests that you start your workout session one to three times a week with an explosive movement, like a kettlebell swing, broad jump, or even sprints.

    For strength based programs, you can introduce explosion by working with lower increments and focusing on powering the weight up.

      1 to 4 times per week

      Samuel cautions you from taking on any program that only challenges you to work with light weights and lots of reps. You won’t be able to build strength and muscle as well without going heavy, so it’s essential to breaking through plateaus and accomplishing your goals. “We have to challenge ourselves with new loads that we are not always prepared to lift—that’s one of the key things in strength training,” he says. “And that’s missing if you’re only picking up a 25-pound dumbbell, if you’re only working with bodyweight, and if you never load past what you think you’re capable of.”

      There are limits to this rule; you won’t be able to load up on every type of movement, particularly isolation exercises like biceps curls. But you can (and should) go heavy with some of the core exercises, like deadlifts, squats, rows, and more (mostly compound exercises). Just make sure that you’re smart when you go heavy, and cut the reps (down to 4 to 6, and sometimes even lower).

      • Workout Must 3: Control Your Body Weight

        Every day

        This might seem counterintuitive to the tip that came just before—but the key here is balance, not doing the exact same thing for every training session. Working with only your bodyweight focuses you to home in on the way you’re moving, according to Samuel. “We need to understand how things change when you’re moving only your bodyweight.”

        Samuel lists several examples of bodyweight-only moves, including pushups, pullups, and chinups. All of these exercises depend on multiple muscle groups working together to create total-body tension, particularly the core. Once you take those principles to alternatives that use gear, like the lat pulldown for the pullup, there’s less need for full body coordination.

        This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

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Men’s Health

London’s most ‘dangerous’ prisons and the serial killers, murderers and rapists who are locked up there

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There are currently 117 prisons in England and Wales, each of them locking away some of the country’s most terrifying and depraved criminals. With a population of nine million, London is home to several prisons which are based across the capital.

Each prison is placed into a different category, depending on the criminals it houses and the offenses they have committed. Beginning with Category A prisons, they house the city’s worst male prisoners who are often contained in high-security cells due to the danger they pose to the public or national security. Within London, only one prison has this status, and it is most commonly associated with the Old Bailey, as criminals are sent there following conviction.

Notorious killers such as Ian Brady, Dennis Nilsen, Michael Adebolajo and Wayne Couzens have been housed in high security cells in London. Levi Bellfield, a murderer responsible for the deaths of three women, was reportedly left begging prison guards to place him in solitary confinement at HMP Belmarsh, after receiving threats from his fellow inmates.

MyLondon have taken a look at London’s prisons and the criminals they keep locked away from our streets.

READ MORE: London criminals are now hiding drugs and weapons under kids’ slides and in loose bricks

HMP Belmarsh

Belmarsh Prison houses many of London’s most high-profile criminals
(Image: Getty Images)

Few prisons in Britain have such a notorious reputation as HMP Belmarsh, where criminals who are convicted at the Old Bailey are often sent. The Category A male prison is often used in high-profile cases, particularly those concerning national security.

Within the prison, there is a unique unit called the High Security Unit which can house 48 of Britain’s most dangerous convicts, and the prison is one of only three high security jails in England and Wales.

Despite this, around a third of prisoners stated they felt unsafe, with levels of violence having increased since an inspection in 2015. According to the HM Chief Inspector of Prisons report in 2018, the prison had a small number of inmates who required “specific management ” to their high-profile status with the public and the media.

His current inmates include Michael Adebolajo, a convicted Islamic extremist who murdered British Army soldier Lee Rigby. Alongside Michael Adebowale, he attacked the 27-year-old outside Woolwich Barracks with knives and a meat cleaver, and attempted to behead him in front of horrified onlookers.

The killer of Conservative MP David Amess, who was repeatedly stabbed during a constituency surgery, which also recently handed a whole life order and sent to HMP Belmarsh. Ali Harbi Ali, a 25-year-old Islamic State sympathiser, had researched over 250 MPs before deciding to carry out his attacks, and told the Old Bailey that he had “no regrets”.

Danyal Hussein, the 19-year-old Satanist who murdered sisters Nicole Smallman and Bibaa Henry in a park at Wembley is also incarcerated within the high-security prison. He murdered the two women in a random attack that he believed would act as a “sacrifice” to a demon named “the mighty king Lucifuge Rofocale” to enable him to win the lottery.

One of his most terrifying former inmates include serial killer Levi Bellfield, who was housed there during his Old Bailey trial in 2011 for the murder of 13-year-old schoolgirl Milly Dowler. According to The Mirror, he begged prison bosses to move him into solitary confinement after he received multiple death threats from other prisoners. The dad-of-11 is a rapist, sex offender and kidnapper, and is currently serving a whole life term for the murders of Dowler, Marsha McDonnell and Amélie Delagrange, as well as the attempted murder of Kate Sheedy.

Wayne Couzens was also kept at Belmarsh ahead of his sentencing, after he pleaded guilty to the kidnapping, rape and murder of marketing executive Sarah Everard. The 33-year-old had been walking back from Clapham Common when she was approached by the former Met Police officer, who tricked her into his car under the pretence of arresting her for breaching Covid-19 restrictions. He drove her two hours out of London before brutally murdering her and setting her body on fire to destroy the evidence.

Other current inmates include Julian Assange, the founder of Wikileaks, neo-Nazi David Copeland who bombed a gay pub, and Stephen Port, referred to as the ‘Grindr Killer’ for murdering four men that he had contacted via dating apps.

HMP Wormwood Scrubs

Wormwood Scrubs has been plagued with gangland activity
(Image: (TMS))

Nicknamed ‘The Scrubs’, HMP Wormwood Scrubs is a Category B men’s prison in Hammersmith. Around 1,200 inmates reside across the five main wings, with one third of prisoners previously reporting that they had felt unsafe or had witnessed violence during their incarceration.

The prison today contains a separate wing for high-risk prisoners and another for those requiring intensive drug treatment. It has been reported that illicit drug activity was taking place within the prison, and the gangland activity was an ongoing threat to inmates. The prison recently made headlines after a refugee committed suicide in his cell after refusing food and talking about killing himself.

It has housed serial killers such as Dennis Nielsen and Ian Brady as well as ‘Britain’s most notorious prisoner’ Charles Bronson. Nilsen, a Scottish murderer and necrophile, killed at least twelve young men and boys between 1978 and 1983, before dissecting their bodies and disposing of them down the toilet. Meanwhile Brady, a psychopath responsible for the Moors Murders, also spent time at the prison before he died 2017. He and his girlfriend Myra Hindley had kidnapped, sexually assaulted and murdered five children before burying their bodies on the Yorkshire Moors.

Named as one of the most high-profile criminals in British history, Charles Bronson first started as a petty criminal during the 1970s, but his prison sentences were extended due to his violent assaults on prison staff. He has also previously spent time in HMP Belmarsh, and is currently locked up in HMP Woodhill.

British rapper Nines was jailed in October for importing 28kg of cannabis into the UK and is currently serving his sentence at HMP Wormwood Scrubs.

HMP Pentonville

Pentonville Prison in Islington, North London
(Image: Ian Waldie)

Based in Islington, HMP Pentonville is one of Britain’s oldest prisons, after it was first opened in 1842. The Category B institution is home to around 1,300 inmates, and is often used for criminals on remand.

In the 20th century, following the closure of the infamous Newgate Prison, Pentonville became the primary execution site in London. Between 1902 and 1961 a total of 120 were executed, including serial killer John Christie and Dr Crippen.

In recent years, it has drawn media attention after a number of high-profile convicts were able to escape. In 2006, a convicted arsonist escaped by clinging on to the underside of the prison van, whilst in 2012 a convicted murder made his getaway from within the confines of Pentonville.

A huge manhunt was launched in 2016 after two prisoners used diamond-tipped cutting equipment to break out of their cells to scale the walls. Prison staff only realized when they found pillows imitating bodies in their beds, and they were recaptured a few days later. Former justice secretary Michael Gove described it in 2015 as “the most dramatic example of failure” within the prison’s estate.

In 2019, it was described as “squalid and inhumane”, with a concern raised about the frequency of assaults on staff, averaging about 10 per month. It has remained largely unchanged in the 180 years it has been operational.

His famous former inmates included Oscar Wilde, Pete Doherty, Boy George and George Michael, who all spent a period of time in the prison for various charges.

HMP Wandsworth

HMP Wandsworth is one of the largest in the UK
(Image: Derek Harper)

The Category B prison in south west London is one of the largest in the UK and has been operating for 171 years. Often housing vulnerable convicts with mental health problems or drug addictions, it has a number of specialist units.

Spread across eight wings, there are over 1,428 men at the prison, and they are offered education and rehabilitation courses during their incarceration. However, a BBC investigation found that cannabis was openly smoked inside the prison and that there was a large-scale drug abuse problem. It also revealed that despite six suicides since 2015, not all staff carrying anti-ligature knives.

In recent years, inmates have included pop star Gary Glitter on pedophile offenses, after he was convicted of downloading child pornography. After a number of sexual assault convictions, he was most recently sentenced in 2015 for having sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 13 years old.

Ronnie Kray, one half of the Kray Twins, was also held at the prison before being committed to Broadmoor Hospital. He and his brother had been organized crime leaders of London’s underworld, and had multiple convictions for murder, armed robbery, protection rackets and assaults.

Former Wimbledon champion Boris Becker was recently sent to HMP Wandsworth after being found guilty of fraud at Southwark Crown Court.

HMP Feltham

Feltham Young Offenders Institute houses hundreds of teenagers
(Image: PA)

HMP Feltham is a young offenders institution for male juveniles, based in the borough of Hounslow. Separated into two parts, it houses 180 teenagers aged 15 to 18, and another section houses 360 adults aged 18 to 21.

Inmates are able to attend full-time or part-time education, workshops, vocational training and undertake apprenticeships. Reports however have stated that Feltham endures “enormous problems” with gang rivalries and postcode-related violence that has continued from the outside world.

In 2019, 20 prison officers were injured after a weekend of violence in the prison, with 13 needing hospital treatment. In the past, it has housed rapper J Hus and well-known grime artist Ghetts, whilst the grim MC Crazy Titch is currently serving a life sentence for murder.

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