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Parkinson’s disease medications increase or retain dopamine



Drugs for Parkinson’s disease are said to increase dopamine levels in the brain or slow the breakdown of dopamine in the brain, thereby relieving tremors and other symptoms.

Dopamine is a chemical that is involved in movement, and its depletion in the brain is central to Parkinson’s disease. By the time someone develops symptoms, it is estimated that dopamine levels in the basal ganglia are already down by an estimated 50 to 75%.

Walking, moving, and trembling can all be better treated with Parkinson’s medication.

Levodopa, which the brain naturally converts to dopamine, is the gold standard for treatment, according to Justin T. Phillips, MD, medical director of movement disorders at the Norton Neuroscience Institute’s Cressman Parkinson & Movement Disorders Center.

Common misconceptions about levodopa cause some patients to wait to take it. Some patients fear that they may develop a tolerance for the drug and it will no longer work, it will only work for a limited time, or the disease will progress faster.

“All of these are myths,” said Dr. Phillips. “Not only is levodopa the most effective drug, it also tends to have fewer side effects, especially in the long term.”

According to Dr. Phillips should be started on levodopa as soon as troubling symptoms appear. It will reduce disability in the long run, although it will require adjustments over time.

While Parkinson’s medication can fight symptoms, there aren’t any that slow or stop the disease’s progression.

According to Dr. Phillips, exercise is the only known therapy that can modify the disease on its own.

Thirty minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least three days per week has been shown to be helpful in Parkinson’s patients. According to Dr. Phillips studies have shown that yoga, dance, tai chi, boxing, and music therapy all have benefits, as do occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech therapy.

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Parkinson’s medication

In addition to levodopa, other drugs that can be used alone to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:

  • Dopamine agonists. These seem to be similar enough to dopamine to activate the brain’s dopamine receptors. Dopamine agonists won’t be as effective as levodopa on symptoms, but they last longer and can help smooth out the occasional effects of levodopa.
  • Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO B) Inhibitors. These drugs help the brain store dopamine. Monoamine oxidase B is an enzyme that helps break down dopamine in the brain. Blocking the enzyme helps hold dopamine in the brain.
  • This drug acts on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain and appears to help release dopamine.

As the disease progresses, these Parkinson’s medications may need to be used in various combinations as motor fluctuations develop into a recurring pattern of Parkinson’s symptoms.

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Respiratory illness cases climb, health experts recommend COVID-19, flu vaccines



As Johnson County sees an increase in COVID-19 cases, public health experts are also seeing increases in RSV, the common cold, parainfluenza and other cases of respiratory illness.

Testing centers and public health experts in Johnson County are seeing more cases of other respiratory diseases year-on-year, while COVID-19 numbers are rising due to the contagious Delta variant.

Johnson County is considered an area with high transmission of COVID-19, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC recommends that everyone wear a mask in indoor public spaces.

On October 25, 188 cases were reported in Johnson County in the past seven days, according to the CDC. The fall rate per 100,000 for the county is 124.39 and there is a positivity rate of 5.37 percent.

While those numbers remain high, Bradley Ford, clinical associate professor of pathology at the University of Iowa’s Carver College of Medicine, said cases of other respiratory diseases are also increasing in the community.

“The most remarkable thing about last year is that there were no respiratory viruses, which means there was no flu season,” said Ford. Cases like ever before. “

Ford said this year had a peak of cases going back to 2017 when he started work in the pathology lab at UI Hospitals and Clinics.

Last year there were almost no cases of respiratory syncytial virus, known as RSV, compared to 45 to 50 per day this year, said Ford. RSV acts like the common cold and causes mild symptoms, but it can affect older adults and little ones Children who are not vaccinated can be dangerous, he said.

Johnson County’s disease prevention specialist Jennifer Miller said the county hasn’t seen any flu cases this season but recommends people get the vaccine as soon as possible.

“We have seen more cases of RSV, the common cold and other respiratory viruses than last year,” Miller said. “This shows that people have masked themselves and have been more attentive to social distancing and were more careful about being around other people.”

Despite the rise in respiratory viruses, Miller said this was not a concern. After seeing what Australia and other southern hemisphere countries were experiencing, public health experts expected a surge in respiratory viruses, she said.

According to the Australian Ministry of Health, 550 cases of flu have been reported since April 2020, compared with 3,000 to 25,000 cases per week in recent years.

For people with a runny nose, cough, fever, and other symptoms of respiratory illness, Miller said it was best to contact health care providers. From then on, she said it was important to follow recommendations for testing.

“Most respiratory diseases will look very similar to what we see with COVID,” Miller said. “It’s hard to tell without testing, unless you know you’ve had a specific exposure.”

People should get a flu shot, and it’s widely available in pharmacies, hospitals, and other places, Miller said. Anyone who isn’t insured can schedule an appointment for a free flu vaccine through Johnson County Public Health, she said.

RELATED: Iowa City Schools That Want To Offer Rapid COVID-19 Testing To Students

Lisa James, Assistant Director of Quality Improvement and Strategic Communications at UI Student Health, said UI Student Health has a wide range of Pfizer BioNTech vaccines. Now UI Student Health is waiting for booster doses for Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, she said, which they will hopefully make available soon.

“Everyone should get a COVID shot when we go into the fall and winter flu seasons,” said James. “Students should also get the flu vaccine as recommended by the CDC.”

James said flu vaccinations are available and cost $ 62, which is usually covered by insurance. She said students can also deduct this fee from their U-bill.

Students can go to the Iowa Memorial Union Nurse Care Clinic without an appointment to get their flu shot, James said in a press release. The opening times are Monday to Thursday from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and Friday from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

James said students can call the main clinic in Westlawn, the main health and wellness location for students, to schedule an appointment for a flu shot, which has the same opening hours as the IMU clinic.

With the increase in other respiratory diseases, Ford is hoping for an easier flu season from November to April.

“Nobody can really predict what a respiratory virus season will be like,” said Ford. “Nobody has predictions this year, but we know it’s safest and best to get vaccinated.”

Miller said the best way to protect yourself and your families is to get vaccinated.

“People can get the flu shot and the COVID vaccine at the same time,” Miller said. “Most people who are vaccinated and become infected are likely to have only mild illness compared to people who are not vaccinated.”

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Utah continues to see higher rates of serious COVID-19 illness in younger adults



A University of Utah health worker is treating patients in the medical intensive care unit at the University of Utah Hospital on July 30th. Utah health officials on Monday confirmed 3,636 new COVID-19 cases since Friday, as well as 21 deaths. (Charlie Ehlert, University of Ut)

Estimated reading time: 3-4 minutes

SALT LAKE CITY – Of the 21 deaths from COVID-19 reported in Utah since Friday, six were between 25 and 44 years old and nine were between 45 and 64 years old as the state continues to see higher rates of serious illness younger adults.

Intermountain Healthcare executives noted last week that hospitals – which continue to have high numbers of coronavirus patients – on average treat patients 20 years younger than the average age of those hospitalized with COVID-19 last year became.

These younger patients are usually not vaccinated, doctors said.

The median age of COVID-19 deaths in Utah has dropped to 72.1 years, according to the Utah Department of Health. That’s compared to November 2020, when the median age of deaths was 73.8.

Last November, over 92% of people who died from COVID-19 were high-risk people, meaning they were over 65 years of age and / or had one or more previous illnesses. Now, 84.6% of patients who die from the virus are considered high-risk patients, according to the data.

Utah health officials also confirmed 3,636 new COVID-19 cases as well as 21 deaths as of Friday.

A breakdown of the daily new cases over the past weekend:

  • Friday: 1.673
  • Saturday: 1.250
  • Sunday: 728

The 7-day rolling average for positive tests is now 1,482 per day, and the average percent positive rate of people tested is now 16.5%, according to a daily update from the Utah Department of Health.

School-age children made up 698 of the cases reported Monday – 351 cases were ages 5 to 10, 153 cases were 11 to 13 years old, and 194 cases were 14 to 18 years old.

Health care workers have administered 20,920 doses of vaccine, including booster shots, since Friday’s report, bringing the total dose administered in Utah to 3,677,561.

In the past 28 days, unvaccinated residents had a 15.4 times higher risk of dying from COVID-19, a 10.9 times higher risk of hospitalization and a 5.4 times higher risk of testing positive for the disease to be considered vaccinated, state health officials said.

As of February 1, unvaccinated people are 8.8 times more likely to die from COVID-19, 7.5 times more likely to be hospitalized, and 3.8 times more likely to be positive test for COVID-19 than vaccinated people.

Of the cases reported on Monday, 913 – or about 25.1% – were considered a “breakthrough,” meaning they were patients who had been fully vaccinated more than two weeks before testing positive. The state confirmed 27 more groundbreaking hospital admissions and no more groundbreaking deaths.

State health officials and doctors have found that receiving the vaccine doesn’t mean someone won’t contract the coronavirus, but in most cases it will protect against serious illness. The vaccine also does not result in a person getting COVID-19.

Since vaccines were made available to the public earlier this year, the state has confirmed 26,372 breakthrough cases in the total of 542,531 positive cases since the pandemic began, or just under 5% of all cases. Utah health officials have also confirmed a total of 1,283 pioneering hospital admissions and 175 pioneering deaths.

525 patients with the coronavirus were hospitalized in the state on Monday, down from five since Friday.

Recent deaths include:

  • Two Washington County women aged 45 to 64 who were hospitalized at the time of their death.
  • An Iron County woman, 45-64, hospitalized.
  • A Weber County man, 25-44, was hospitalized.
  • Two Salt Lake County women, 45-64, were hospitalized.
  • Two Utah County men, 25-44 years old, were hospitalized.
  • A 65-84-year-old woman from Salt Lake County was hospitalized.
  • Two Utah County men, 65-84, hospitalized.
  • Davis County man, 45-64, hospitalized.
  • A Utah County woman, 25-44 year old, was hospitalized.
  • A man from Weber County, 65-84, hospitalized.
  • A woman from Box Elder County, 25-44, was hospitalized.
  • A woman from Washington County, 65-84 years old, was hospitalized.
  • A Box Elder County man, 45-64, was hospitalized.
  • A Sevier County man, 25-44 years old, was hospitalized.
  • A Carbon County man, 65-84, hospitalized.
  • A Utah County man, 45-64, was hospitalized.
  • Cache County woman, 45-64, of unknown hospital status.


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Dog Health Issues: 9 Common Ones



Your dogs can get sick for a number of reasons. While you can properly care for your pet and reduce the risk of illness, dogs are prone to some illnesses.

However, you can take it regularly for checkups and use nutritional supplements to minimize the chances of your pet falling victim to these diseases. For example, cannabinoids for dogs are a product that was recently revealed to work wonders for the general well-being of dogs.

Another thing you can do is know these common health issues and look for symptoms in your pet. Hence, in this article, we’re going to discuss some of the most common health problems dogs are prone to.

1. Skin problems

Many dogs are prone to having one skin problem or another. Fortunately, this is a health problem that is easy to spot as it is often accompanied by multiple physical signs. Some of these signs include itching, the skin may also be flaky, flaky, red, inflamed, or have some other abnormal appearance. In addition, your pet can lose hair at certain points.

The reasons for this problem range from skin infections to allergies, parasites and so on. If you notice your pet constantly chewing or scratching themselves, or their skin looking different from what it used to be, see a veterinarian as soon as possible.

2. Vomiting

Several things can cause your pet to vomit. While you don’t need to see the vet if your pet is vomiting, you shouldn’t ignore them either.

Sometimes the vomiting can be indicative of gastrointestinal obstruction, toxicity, or even a more serious illness. It can also cause them to vomit when feeding something their stomach disagrees with.

However, if the vomiting is constant and is accompanied by other symptoms, such as weakness or diarrhea, you need to see your veterinarian.

3. Urinary tract infection

Dogs are quite prone to urinary tract problems. If your pet is constantly messing up the house with urine, you can get frustrated. Some people often feel that this is because their dogs are improperly trained or have behavior problems.

Sometimes this isn’t the case as the poor guy may just have a urinary tract infection. The likelihood of this disease is higher if it is a puppy or if it has an underlying health condition.

Some symptoms of this problem include increased thirst, frequent and inadequate urination, lethargy, and bloody urine. Other health conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease may be associated with the symptoms listed.

4. Parasites

A dog’s world is full of parasites. The parasites can be externally like ticks and fleas or internally like intestinal worms and heartworms. You can read this to learn more about the intestinal parasites of some common dogs.

Fortunately, there are a few steps you can take to keep your dog safe from these parasites. You can take preventive treatments monthly. Knowing about these parasites can help keep your pet safe.

5. Ear infections

Your beloved furry friend may have an ear infection if he is constantly scratching his ears or shaking his head. Often times, this condition accompanies ear discharge.

The condition can be itchy and sometimes painful and cause serious damage if left untreated. If your pet exhibits any of the above symptoms for 1 to 2 days, you need to take them to the vet. Sometimes allergies can trigger this condition. Skin problems can also accompany the condition.

6. Dental problems

A serious but overlooked health problem dogs are prone to is dental disease, especially periodontal disease. This is a disease that affects a dog’s teeth and gums.

Some people even think that a dog with terrible breath is normal. However, this is not normal as it can be an indication of dental disease. When tartar and plaque are in a dog’s mouth, they often contain dangerous bacteria that can damage both the dog’s gums and teeth.

What’s worse, these bacteria get into the dog’s bloodstream and cause other serious health problems like kidney failure and heart disease.

7. Obesity

Although obesity is common in dogs, it is a problem that can easily be prevented. This health condition can lead to other dire and serious medical conditions such as orthopedic problems, heart disease, diabetes, etc.

Fortunately, with exercise and a good diet, you can save (or even reverse) your pet from this condition.

8. Arthritis

Arthritis causes inflammation in the joints of the body. In dogs, degenerative joint disease (also called osteoarthritis) is the type of arthritis they are most susceptible to.

This condition mostly occurs in seniors, although congenital conditions like hip dysplasia and old injuries can lead to it.

Fortunately, it can be managed. So, if you think your pet has this condition, make an appointment with your veterinarian to discuss the options available.

9. Diarrhea

Things that can cause diarrhea are much like what causes vomiting, and diarrhea and vomiting can sometimes go hand in hand. You can visit to learn more about diarrhea in dogs.

Just like vomiting, an episode or two of diarrhea does not warrant an emergency vet visit. However, if it persists it can lead to dehydration. So you need to consult the veterinarian if it persists or is accompanied by lethargy and vomiting.


Dogs are prone to a number of health issues that can affect their overall wellbeing. Here we’ve discussed some of these common problems and their causes.

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