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What is it, and how does it affect mental health?

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Over the last several decades, gender roles have evolved and changed to reflect shifting societal norms. Yet, despite these changes, unpaid household labor disparities still exist between partnered men and women worldwide. In this Special Feature, we take an in-depth look at how this unequal division of unpaid work affects women’s mental health and relationships. We also spoke with three experts to gain insight into this global issue.

Share on PinterestWomen continue to shoulder the majority of unremunerated tasks. What does this mean for their mental health? Image credit: Juana Mari Moya/Getty Images.

Although gender roles are less rigid than they were decades ago, data suggest that, in heterosexual relationships, the burden of unpaid work still falls on women — even in cohabitating relationships where both partners are employed.

For example, 2021 US Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that both spouses were employed in 46.8% of married couple families. Yet statistics also indicate that 59% of women report doing more household work than their partners.

However, other data suggest that since the mid-1970s, the amount of time men spend on household tasks has doubled. For instance, in 1976, men spent around 6 hours a week on household duties. In 2005, that number increased to around 12.5 hours per week.

But, in those same years, women still spent more time completing unpaid household labor — specifically, around 26 hours per week in 1976 and around 16.5 hours per week in 2005.

Still, the impact of unpaid labor inequities may have on women’s mental health is often overlooked.

To examine this further, scientists from the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, investigated the relationship between unpaid labor and mental health among employed adults.

Their findings, published in The Lancet Public Health, suggest a negative association between unpaid labor and mental health for employed women. However, the researchers did not find the same associations for working men.

To conduct the research, the scientists reviewed 19 studies with 70,310 total participants from across the globe. Qualifying studies were peer-reviewed and measured the amount of unpaid labor among employed adults. They also outlined associations between this type of work and self-reported mental health concerns, including depression and psychological distress.

After examining the research, the study authors found that women reported taking on more unpaid work regardless of geographical location and time setting. Moreover, this added burden was associated with poorer mental health in women. However, the impact on men was less clear.

In addition, the researchers also found that a 1-hour increase in unpaid work per week led to small but significant changes in mental health status. Furthermore, some studies in the review reported a 0.2-0.4-point rise in depression scores for every 10-hour increase in unpaid labor time.

Although more investigation is needed, the study authors suggest that persistent household labor inequities continue to exist among male and female partners worldwide. And this imbalance exposes women to an increased risk of negative mental health effects.

Study author Jennifer Ervin, a doctoral researcher in the Center for Health Equity at the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, told Medical News Today:

“There is no universally recognized term or definition for unpaid labor — also referred to as unpaid work, unpaid care work, domestic labor, or household labor — but it is considered broadly inclusive of all responsibilities and tasks done to maintain a household and its family members without any explicit monetary compensation.”

“So childcare is a big one, and relatedly so is care for people with disabilities, health conditions or who are elderly. But it also includes domestic work like laundry, food preparation, cleaning, running errands, and outdoor tasks,” she added.

The study authors suggest that a significant unpaid workload combined with the responsibilities of employment may contribute to role overload, conflict, and time scarcity, which can negatively affect mental health.

Additionally, housework is often perceived as mundane, undervalued, or unenjoyable.

However, men may experience less adverse mental health concerns with unpaid labor because of the nature of the tasks.

Ervin explained:

“We know that men commonly do the less time-sensitive jobs within the household, such as outdoor or maintenance tasks. These are referred to in the literature as high-schedule-control tasks — as one has more control over when one undertakes this type of unpaid labor work.”

To clarify further, Ervin said that “a good example is that you can delay mowing the lawn until the weekend, for instance, when you are less time-pressured, whereas you cannot delay feeding a hungry child or driving a dependent to a medical appointment .”

“Outdoor tasks are also theorized to not only be less time-sensitive but may also be more enjoyable and possibly protective than other types of household work,” she added.

dr Naomi Murphy, consultant clinical and forensic psychologist and co-founder of Octopus Psychology, told MNT: “Inequality causes anxiety and depression. It creates distance between unequal parties and causes mistrust and resentment. […] It can leave women feeling devalued and resentful of their partner and overwhelmed by the volume of responsibilities they have.”

She also noted that the unequal burden “can lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness within the relationship.”

“If significantly more of the responsibility is shouldered by one person, it can create a sense of overwhelm and a feeling that you can’t meet all your responsibilities; it can also lead to a reduction in confidence,” Dr. Murphy explained.

Household labor disparities between men and women may have resulted from several factors. Ervin suggests that it may be “substantially rooted in historical context and times — when it was normative for women to be homemakers and for men to be breadwinners.”

“Resultantly, there remain deeply entrenched gender roles and social norms around the gendered division of household labor. Unfortunately, despite women entering the paid workforce in unprecedented numbers during the 20th century, there has not been a parallel or remotely equal increase in men’s participation in labor on the home front,” Ervin explained.

dr Murphy further noted the intergenerational impact of unpaid labor inequities:

“Families often socialize daughters into helping more with household chores; generations of women have done this, so the patterns are entrenched. As girls are more likely to emulate their female role models, this pattern gets transferred from one generation to the next.”

In addition to mental health harm, ongoing unpaid work inequities may impact personal and professional relationships.

According to Dr. Mark Goulston, psychiatrist and executive coach, and founding member at Newsweek Expert Forum, unpaid labor imbalances “can cause women to feel more overwhelmed, [to] often feel […] that at any moment they are disappointing someone so that if they’re focused on work, they’re neglecting home and children and if they’re focused on home and children, they’re neglecting work.”

He also noted that “women who are exhausted can become impatient with their children and inside feel deep resentment which can cause them to feel shame and that they are an awful mother.”

According to Dr. Murphy, “The loss of confidence created by overwhelm can [also] spill out to professional life.”

Moreover, “the person shouldering the burden of household work may feel anger at their partner for not pulling his weight which can translate into intimacy problems,” she added.

To facilitate changes when experiencing unequal division of household work, Dr. Murphy offered the following suggestions to women:

  • talk with your partner and tell them how you feel before the issue becomes problematic
  • discuss and negotiate a fair division of labor
  • find ways to appreciate each other and remind yourself why you fell in love
  • find ways to value yourself and appreciate yourself
  • consider couples counseling to rekindle closeness, intimacy, and improve communication.

“Try not to criticize how your partner does the contributions they do make – they may not be doing it as fast as you like or in the same way, but criticism is likely to deter them from contributing,” she also advised.

On a larger scale, changing deeply rooted unpaid labor inequities within families may require specific policy changes.

Moving forward, Ervin suggested that “[p]olicies such as universal childcare and normalizing flexible working arrangements and extended paternity leave for men can help in shifting the dial and driving greater gender equality in the division of unpaid labor and unpaid care.”

“Importantly, however, we need to be careful about policies that only target women as this may reinforce gender inequalities,” she emphasized.

“We need to dismantle norms around what it means to be an ideal worker and highlight the importance of gender-neutral approaches to leave and flexible working – accommodating how work integrates with home life for both women and men. This is fundamental to gender equality.”

– Jennifer Ervin

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Men’s Health

Drachen Reviews – Safe Male Growth Hormone Activator Spray or Scam?

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As men age, their testosterone levels begin to drop, which can lead to problems with their stamina and energy. This is why it is crucial to consider taking male growth hormone activators to increase testosterone and muscle growth and boost sex drive and libido.

Male growth hormone works by activating cells in your body that produce testosterone, which causes your body to create more protein in the liver and muscles than usual. This increased production of protein results in faster muscle recovery after exercise and increased strength.

The male growth hormone (MGM) is usually produced in the pituitary gland but is not enough to give you the vitality you want. This is why we introduce Drachen Male Growth Hormone Activator. It contains all the necessary ingredients to boost your energy, stamina, and sex drive. Read on to discover the compounds it uses and why it is highly recommended.

What is dragon?

Dragon is considered the world’s first male growth hormone activator. The formula contains natural amino acids and extracts that have been scientifically and clinically proven to support men’s health. This male enhancement supplement has been used by thousands of people and has proven safe for human consumption. It does not contain additives, stimulants, or toxins that may injure your health.

Dragon uses the freshest and highest quality compounds that have been laboratory tested for purity, safety, and effectiveness. Besides, the formula has also been manufactured in an FDA-approved facility that complies with the GMP guidelines.

Dragon is also easy to use. All you need to do is to spray the formula at the tip of your tongue three times a day to enjoy its benefits. With Drachen, you are assured of 100% satisfaction.

Pros and Cons of Dragons


  • It is an all-natural formula
  • It is a non-GMO formula
  • It is easy to use
  • It does not cause any side effects
  • No need for a professional doctor to make the formula work
  • It has been proven to work
  • It’s affordable


  • Results may vary between individuals
  • The formula is only available on the official website. You cannot find it elsewhere.

The Science Behind Dragons

Dragon uses twelve specific ingredients to improve your overall sexual health. All the ingredients have been combined proportionally and work synergistically to ensure you enjoy more energy and feel younger and energized. Drachen includes a 2000mg Growth Factor Complex and a 1000mg HGH Stimulator of the blend of the following ingredients that are incorporated into the formula;


Moomiyo is a common ingredient in South Siberia and is known as one of the world’s most potent adaptogens and aphrodisiac medicines used in Ayurveda. The compound is well-known as a sex stimulant and as Indian Viagra. Moomiyo also offers natural anabolic protection, alleviating inflammation and increasing testosterone production. Moomiyo is also suitable for minimizing stress and preventing fatigue, especially in athletes focusing on muscle growth and strength training.


GABA is linked to sexual desire, performance, and other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin; male sexual behavior is one of the many behaviors that GABA modifies. It is popularly known as a neurotransmitter that helps improve sleep patterns. According to experts, muscle growth always happens when you are resting. Therefore, taking enough GABA will help in the continuous development of your sex organs and body.

A post on Psychology Today also points out that GABA is suitable for lowering blood pressure and preventing stress and anxiety. The post also says that low GABA activity in the body can trigger depression, difficulty concentrating, muscle pain, and sleep problems.


Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a central role in the brain’s reward system. It is vital for the expression of emotions, motivation, and movement. L-Dopa is a special amino acid that focuses on triggering dopamine production can cause sexual desire and erections, and can delay ejaculation. Dopamine is also associated with many aspects of cognition: attention, learning, memory, planning, and problem-solving. All of which are essential to human behavior.

Apart from that, dopamine facilitates the production of essential hormones that help in muscle growth and development.


L-Glutamine is also an amino acid that plays a critical role in the body while serving as a building block for proteins. This compound is suitable for improving the immune system and aids muscle gains and exercise performance. Research by the National Institute of Health shows that L-glutamine may help minimize muscle soreness and boost recovery after an intense workout.

L-Glutamine also serves as an excellent catalyst for being more alert, sharp-witted, and erotically-minded; some doctors will prescribe glutamine for sexual dysfunctions. It also causes the body tissues to grow and protects them from toxins that can trigger nasty inflammations.


L-Tyrosine is a dietary substance for improving focus, alertness, and attention. The compound contains antidepressant and anxiolytic properties, which is why it is well-known for boosting mental performance in stressful situations. L-Tyrosine also helps to minimize oxidative stress while improving sleep patterns. L-Tyrosine has also been shown to regulate the dopamine hormone. It also aids in producing adrenaline and noradrenaline, hormones responsible for lowering stress and anxiety.


L-Arginine is an amino acid that helps in protein creation, improves sexual function, and is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The compound helps improve blood flow to your reproductive organs, allowing you to have longer, stronger, and better erections. L-arginine also helps regulate blood pressure, manage critical illness, regulate blood sugar, and enhance athletic performance.

What Are the Benefits of Dragons?

Apart from a few benefits mentioned above, here is what you should expect to get after using the dragon formula;

You Will Feel Younger

With Drachen Male Growth Hormone Activator, you can restore your youth. The formula contains unique nutrients that will decrease inflammation and make your reproductive organ bigger, harder and stronger. This will improve your performance, making you feel younger and more energetic.

Improved stamina

Stamina is the ability to maintain a high level of physical or mental activity for long periods. Dragon allows you to boost your mental and physical endurance for longer-lasting experiences. The ingredients incorporated into the formula improve your muscle strength and promote better blood flow and oxygen circulation.

Improves vitality and energy

Improved vitality and energy will make you perform for long hours and enjoy intense arousal. With Drachen, your libido will increase, and you will feel more energized, thanks to the nutrients and amino acids that facilitate muscle growth and protect the body against harmful inflammation.

Improved self-confidence

Dragon naturally improves testosterone levels, giving its users an unbeatable bedroom performance. The formula makes you feel self-assured and irresistible—no more disappointments, embarrassments, and frustrations.

How To Use Dragons

The company recommends its customers shake the bottle of Drachen well, then spritz twice under the tongue each morning, and repeat the process using four spritzes under the tongue in the evening. Customers are also recommended to avoid eating or drinking liquids half an hour after each dose of Drachen.

What do Customers Say About Dragons?

More than 112,700 happy customers say that Drachen is worth purchasing. They are delighted with how the formula works and recommend it to other men struggling with low-performance issues. Here are a few testimonials posted on the official website;

John A. says he has had two divorces after being cheated on. He says he never felt confident about his erections and athletic performance and even went to a therapist for help. John says that three months ago, he found dragons, which was recommended to him by a friend. After using it, he says, “Now I feel like a new man, I feel younger, stronger, faster, and I’ve seen a noticeable change in the bedroom as well.” He highly recommends it to everybody.

Roger F. is another Drachen customer, and he says that every man should feel proud of having a weapon that can satisfy a woman. He says that since he started taking dragons, he has felt more in tune with his body, which made him feel leveled up as a man. Roger says his sex life has become more fulfilling, like in his 20s. He says he feels confident that he can satisfy any partner he meets on Tinder. He is thankful to the creator of the dragon formula.

dragon pricing

If you are struggling with erection and sexual health problems, it’s high time you get the Drachen Male Growth Hormone Activator to improve your confidence, energy, and libido. It is exclusively sold on the official website, and each bottle of dragon contains a month of servings. The company offers a 60-day money-back guarantee. Here is how dragon pricing breaks down;

  • Buy One Bottle $69.00 + Shipping
  • Buy four bottles $49.00/Each + Free US Shipping
  • Buy two bottles $59.00/Each + Free US Shipping

price 3

A 60-day money-back guarantee protects each purchase. Unsatisfied customers can reach out to the creator and request a full refund by phone or by sending an email to:

  • Email:
  • Phone: 1-883-882-8559


Drachen has helped thousands of men renew their sexual confidence and can help you. Each bottle of the male enhancement formula Drachen is produced in the US and is filled with a blend of powerful sexual health benefits for men. Visit the official Drachen website to get started today.




Affiliate Disclosure:

The links contained in this product review may result in a small commission if you opt to purchase the product recommended at no additional cost to you. This goes towards supporting our research and editorial team. Please know we only recommend high-quality products.


Please understand that any advice or guidelines revealed here are not even remotely substitutes for sound medical or financial advice from a licensed healthcare provider or certified financial advisor. Make sure to consult with a professional physician or financial consultant before making any purchasing decision if you use medications or have concerns following the review details shared above. Individual results may vary and are not guaranteed as the statements regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration or Health Canada. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA, or Health Canada approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease and do not provide any kind of get-rich money scheme. Reviewer is not responsible for pricing inaccuracies. Check product sales page for final prices.

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Men’s Health

Dating a Single Mom – What You Need to Know (REDPILL)

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Dating a Single Mom – What You Need to Know (REDPILL)

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Men’s Health

“It’s Not Healthy”: Dwayne Johnson Gets Lambasted for Jeopardizing His Health for ‘Superhuman’ Physique

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Dwayne Johnson simply loves working out and being the hardest worker in the room. He inculcates this discipline in most aspects of his life. This is how he transformed himself into a bodybuilding and fitness icon in the last few years.


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Even at 50 years of age, The Rock boasts a stunning physique and takes extreme care to maintain his body. The former WWE Champion has a personalized gym, The Iron Paradise, and carries his equipment even on movie sets.

In fact, his muscular built has advanced his career as a top Hollywood star.


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DJ has always stressed that to maintain his body and fitness, he has to spend a lot of time daily in the gym. In a recent interview, Th Black Adam star noted that he would value staying fit in the long run rather than being fit for a particular job.

However, this led to sharp criticism from noted IFFB pro bodybuilder Greg Doucette, who said The Rock’s words contradicted his actions.

Doucette said Dwayne Johnson is putting his health in danger

Dwayne Johnson’s beefed up physique played a crucial role in the revival of his Hollywood career. The People’s Champion put in the work in the gym and his appearance made him a popular choice for action movie roles.

For his latest outing in Black Adam, the actor revealed how much intense training he underwent to look for this specific role of a superhero.

Still, in an interview with Men’s Health, The Rock said his priority is being fit for longevity rather than being fit for a job. After his comments, Greg Doucette spoke on his YouTube channel and claimed that the Hollywood star was lying.


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Replying to The Rock’s comments on his YouTube channel, Doucette said, “You’re training harder than last time. Getting bigger, leaner, dieting all for a movie role. Black Adam was your number one opening blockbuster of all time. You wanted to demonstrate a physique that everyone would be in shock to see. Take off the Black Adam costume and reveal a physique that’s just simply superhuman.”

Moreover, he also said to achieve such a physique, The Rock may be using performance-enhancing drugs. He said it wasn’t right and expressed concern for DJ’s health.


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He continued, “To do that, you have to take risks using performance-enhancing drugs to attain an incredible physique such as this well into your 50s. It’s not healthy.”

This isn’t the first time Greg Doucette has raised doubts about The Rock’s physique. Earlier, he questioned whether his body was all natural or there was something more to it.


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Watch This Story: Its cheating Arnold Schwarzenegger Joe Rogan live by bodybuilding belief Dwayne Johnson is possibly against

Doucette is renowned as a bodybuilding and fitness coach throughout the world with over 30 years of experience. A former IFFB pro bodybuilder, his comments about Dwayne Johnson could turn some heads.

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